Database

Una base dati bibliografica per la Società Italiana di Archeoastronomia

a cura di Riccardo Balestrieri e Alberto Cora

La tabella che segue è un estratto da un file xlsx contenente gli indici di numerosi volumi dedicati all’archeoastronomia e alla storia dell’astronomia. Ciò ha lo scopo di permettere una rapida ricerca di quanto di interesse, tramite parole chiave, in opere edite non ancora indicizzate pienamente, ad esempio, in SAO/NASA ADS [https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/]. In prospettiva, tale base dati potrebbe essere estesa ad altre riviste, quali Coelum (1931-1986) e Giornale di Astronomia (1975-2019), di cui sono già stati realizzati i file pertinenti. L’insieme dei tre file comprenderebbe 3848 record. Una base dati relazionale di questa dimensione o, meglio, ancora più vasta, potrebbe essere gestita con un progetto condiviso tra la SIA e altre organizzazioni interessate.

AUTOREALTRIARTICOLORIASSUNTO
Aa. Vv.-Presentazione [del volume]-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Introduzione [del volume]-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Relazione introduttiva-
Monaco, Giuseppe-I problemi della catalogazione del patrimonio storico strumentale-
Batori, Armida-I problemi della catalogazione del patrimonio storico bibliografico-
Paoloni, Giovanni-La catalogazione del materiale archivistico-
Miniati, Mara-Criteri e metodi di rilevamento per la gestione del patrimonio strumentale e biblio-archivistico-
Aa. Vv.-Fac-simile dei modelli utilizzati nell'indagine conoscitiva preliminare-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Introduzione [del volume]-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Risultati dell'indagine conoscitiva promossa dalla SAIt sui problemi della catalogazione del patrimonio biblio-archivistico e strumentale negli Osservatori astronomici-
Calisi, Marinella-Note per la compilazione della scheda riguardante la catalogazione della strumentazione storico-scientifica e gestione automatizzata del patrimonio esistente negli Osservatori astronomici-
Zuccoli, Marina-Proposte per l'ordinamento del materiale bibliografico (libri e riviste) negli Osservatori astronomici-
Schiavone, Luisa-Le biblioteche degli Osservatori astronomici italiani-
Serra, MarioCasanova, Andrea - Bullita, PaoloUn progetto di automazione sperimentale per le biblioteche dell'Ateneo cagliaritano: situazione attuale e prospettive-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Introduzione [del volume]-
Bònoli, FabrizioCalisi, Marinella - Proverbio, Edoardo - Ranfagni, PieroUna proposta di classificazione della strumentaria storica astronomica-
Pilloni, SalvatoreRanfagni, Piero - Calisi, Marinella - Bònoli, FabrizioProgetto di informatizzazione delle schede catalografiche degli strumenti di interesse storico degli Osservatori astronomici italiani-
Calisi, MarinellaMonaco, GiuseppeSituazione del Museo Copernicano di Roma: problemi e prospettive-
Cristaldi De Longis, Gabriella-Legislazione archivistica: collaborazione e prospettive per la salvaguardia degli archivi storici degli Osservatori astronomici-
Mandrino, AgneseTucci, PasqualeL'archivio dell'Osservatorio di Brera: prospettive di conservazione e di valorizzazione-
Martines, Francesca-L'archivio storico dell'Osservatorio astronomico di Palermo-
Zuccoli, Marina-Il problema della soggettazione: la versione multilingue del 'Thesaurus di astronomia e astrofisica'-
Randazzo, Donatella-La biblioteca dell'Osservatorio astronomico di Palermo-
Casanova, Juan S.J.-L'astronomia nel Collegio Romano nella prima metà del Seicento-
Romano, Giuliano-Personaggi minori dell'astronomia padovana prima del XIX secolo-
Braccesi, Alessandro-Specificità e limiti dell'esperienza di lavoro della Specola di Bologna nel XVIII secolo-
Badolati, Ennio-Soluzioni italiane dell'Equazione di Keplero nel '700-
Monaco, Giuseppe-La Specola Caetani-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Sui primi strumenti di astronomia di posizione della Specola di Brera in Milano-
Tagliaferri, GiuseppeTucci, PasqualeLa dimissione di Boscovich da Brera-
Miniati, Mara-Origini della Specola fiorentina-
Di Bono, Mario-La Specola pisana (1735-1808)-
Leani, Achille-Contatti Brera-Cremona per il rifacimento del quadrante dell'orologio astronomico del Torrazzo ed altre questioni-
Masani, Alberto-Il principio antropico fra cosmologia e riflessione umanistica-
Bulferetti, Luigi-La problematica scientifico-filosofica di Paolo Celesia interessante il principio antropico-
De Sabbata, Venzo-Il principio antropico-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Prefazione [al volume]-
Hoskin, Michael-The aftermath of Newton-
Arrighi, Gino-A treatise by Tommaso Narducci (1679-1766) on the comparison between Leibnitz' differential calculus and Newton's fluxion calculus-
Masani, Alberto-Still current Newtonian problems-
D'Agostino, Salvo-From Boskovic's notes on the work of Benedict Stay: A criticism of one of Newton's alleged proofs of absolute motion-
Tabarroni, Giorgio-The tides and Newton-
Monaco, Giuseppe-Giuseppe Calandrelli and his first applications of gravitational theory to the cometary atmospheres-
Casanova, Juan S.J.-G. Settele and the final annulment of the decree of 1616 against Copernicanism-
Marcialis, Maria Teresa-Francesco Algarotti's worldly Newtonianism-
Crasta, Francesca Maria-Aspects of Eighteenth Century cosmologyWe shall examine some of the historical-philosophical premise which, during the first half of the eighteenth century, formed the background for discussion on cosmology. We shall particularle dwell on Emanuel Swedenborg's cosmogonic system, profoundly influenced by the mechanistic Cartesian model. Swedenborg, who came into contact with the English Newtonian enviroment about 1710, attempted to mediate between vortex and universal gravitational physics. This attempt, hardly convincing with regard to the mathematical definition of phaenomena, is however particularly interesting in relation to the evolutionistics cosmology hyptheses formulated in the eigtheenth century.
Proverbio, Edoardo-R. G. Boscovich and the measurement of the refractive quality of lenses-
Iannaccone, Isaia-From Tycho Brahe to Isaac Newton: Ferdinand Verbiest's astronomical instruments in the ancient Observatory of Beijing-
Mancuso, Santi-W. Herschel, maker of telescopesAfter a short biographical notice the scientific activity of W. Herschel is considered in relation to his work as inventor and maker of telescopes of his own, which he employed for his observations. Subsequently are discussed the reflecting telescopes which were brought back to use by Herschel by improving the models previously developed by Gregory, Cassegrain and Newton. Later on are described the reflecting telescopes constructed by Herschel with conic sections mirrors (parabola and hyperbola) in order to eliminate the spherical aberration which had been the main defect to reflecting telescopes, as well as chromatism of lenses had been, before Dollond, a considerable limitation for refracting telescopes.
Proverbio, Edoardo-Prefazione [al volume]-
Arrighi, Gino-The Royal Observatory of Marlia (Lucca)-
Monaco, Giuseppe-Lorenzo Respighi and star scintillation-
Proverbio, Edoardo-The production of achromatic objectives in the first half of the Nineteenth Century: the contribution of Giovanni Battista Amici-
Tucci, Pasquale-Amici's reflectors and refractors-
Sutera, Salvatore-The Nineteenth Century - instruments to observe: the contribution of Italian makersQuesto lavoro analizza la nascita delle prime industrie italiane che hanno costruito strumenti scientifici "meccanootiici" in particolare. Il periodo preso in esame va dalla fine dell'ottocento alla prima metà del 900 e mette in evidenza lo sforzo che fecero alcuni costruttori italiani ( e tra di essi Ignazio Porro) per dare alla loro produzione artigianale una dimensione industriale capace di competere con le maggiori case costruttrici.
Iannaccone, Isaia-The structure of universe: syncretism and continuity of the Chinese cosmological theories-
Banfi, Vittorio-The expanding universe and the expanding solar systemA theoretical connection between the solar system and the whole universe cosmogony is presented and proved. This is obtained by means of an implementation of the model of projective relativity. As an implication of this study, a time variation law of universal gravitation constant G is found.
Buffoni, LetiziaManara, Alessandro - Tucci, PasqualeG. V. Schiaparelli and A. Secchi on shooting stars-
Mancuso, Santi-Ernesto Capocci and astronomical research in Naples around the middle of the Nineteenth Century-
Masani, Alberto-Helmholtz and the birth of theoretical astrophysics-
Stavinschi, Magda-Joseph Boscovich in Romania-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Prefazione [al volume]-
Milanesi, Marica-Geography and cosmography in Italy from XV to XVII Century
Proverbio, Edoardo-Astronomical and sailing tables from the second half of the 15th Century to the middle of the 16th Century-
Casini, Paolo-Copernicus, Philolaus and the Pythagoreans-
Calisi, Marinella-The astronomic and geographic culture in Italy from XV to XVII Century
Di Palma, Maria Teresa-Seventeenth Century Italian word-atlases from Magini to Coronelli-
Barlai, KatalinBoronkai, ÁgnesAstronomical codices in the Corviniana Library
Tinazzi, Massimo-Meteorite fallen in '600 near Vago (Verona)
Banfi, Vittorio-A dynamical problem applied to the Earth, solved by Leonardo da Vinci
Arrighi, Gino-A Sixteenth Century astronomical and geographic epithalamium-
Banfi, Vittorio-H. W. M. Olbers as a forerunner of the spacecraft astrodynamics
Tinazzi, Massimo-Pietro Cossali: a Veronese astronomer
Tinazzi, Massimo-Pietro Cossali and the eclipses of 1791 and of 1803
Guidoboni, EmanuelaMarmo, Costantino - Polcaro, Vito FrancescoDo we need to redate the birth of the Crab Nebula?
Polcaro, Vito FrancescoViotti, RobertoPublishing is not enough
Proverbio, Edoardo-Prefazione [al volume]-
Proverbio, EdoardoCalledda, PinoCannocchiali e telescopi di interesse storico e loro costruttori in uso negli Osservatori Astronomici italiani-
Calabrese, Valeria-An early Italian astronomical society founded in Turin in 1906
Böhm, Conrad-L'Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste nel XIX secolo
Cristaldi, SalvatoreMangano, AngelaThe Astrophysical Observatory and the University Institute of Astronomy in Catania-
Olostro Cirella, Emilia-Per una storia dell'Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte: gli anni dal 1735 al 1812
Cassini, Anna-Gio. Domenico Cassini: uno scienziato del Seicento a Bologna
Tinazzi, Massimo-Pietro Cossali and the Parma Observatory between the end of the 18th Century and the beginning of the 19th Century. Mathematical contributions to the dynamics in the Solar System
Bònoli, FabrizioParmeggiani, GianluigiQuirico Filopanti: una singolare figura di astronomo nella Bologna dell'Ottocento-
Bònoli, FabrizioColavita, Anna Cinzia - Mataix Loma, CarmenL'ambiente culturale bolognese del Quattrocento attraverso Domenico Maria Novara e la sua influenza in Nicolò Copernico
Mataix Loma, Carmen-Copernico: entre el racionalismo y el hermetismo-
Todesco, Piero-La famiglia Lusverg dal '600 all'800
Belli, Stefano-L'astronomia per la geografia: il caso Marsili-
Romano, Giuliano-The picture of the Sala Meridiana of the Padua Observatory
Arrighi, Gino-L'epistolaiìrio di p. Angelo Secchi S.J. (con una lettera all'ab. Moigno)-
Marini, Mara-A project to rearrange and inventory the historical-scientific archive of the Turin - Pino Torinese Astronomical Observatory-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Prefazione [al volume]-
Braccesi, Alessandro-Tra ricordi e documenti: radioastronomia e cosmologia a Bologna, 1959-1969
Proverbio, Edoardo-Sul Gabinetto meteorologico e sulla Specola meteorologica e astronomica di Pietro Moscati in Milano-
Carbone, LucianoCardone, Giuseppe - Mancuso, SantiIl fenomeno della variazione della latitudine a corto periodo: gli studi di Arminio Nobile e la controversia con Ernesto Cesàro-
Balestrieri, Riccardo-Francesco Porro e l'Osservatorio meteorologico e astronomico dell'Università di Genova
Tinazzi, Massimo-The published and unpublished works of Pietro Cossali, astronomer, meteorologist, and hydraulic in the Parma University. Manuscripts and correspondence
Cristaldi, SalvatoreMangano, AngelaOn some letters addressed to Annibale Riccò reegarding the monument dedicated to the memory of Angelo Secchi-
Colavita, Anna CinziaMataix Loma, CarmenGalileo e l'Inquisizione in Spagna
Schettino, Edvige-Il calore radiante della Luna: una prova per l'identità della radiazione termica e luminosa
Manara, Alessandro-Controversie e curiosità sulla nomenclatura dei piccoli pianeti
Badolati, Ennio-Sopra una formula di Machin-
Banfi, Vittorio-Epicycles, from Hipparchus to Chandrasekhar
Arrighi, Gino-Su alcune Tavole astronomiche della Biblioteca Nazionale Braidense di Milano-
Vlora, Nedim R.Falagario, RaffaeleIl calendario biblico-
Barlai, Katalin-Remarks on the orientation of the medieval church at Kána, Hungary
Romano, Giuliano-Deviazioni negli orientamenti del tipo 'Sol Aequinoctialis'
Codebò, Mario-Nuove indagini a Colle Joben (BZ)
Codebò, Mario-Prime indagini archeoastronomiche in Liguria
Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar-The universe of Ptolemy revisited
Bònoli, Fabrizio-L'astronomia a Bologna e il catalogo del Museo della Specola
Calabrese, Valeria-L'archivio storico-scientifico dell'Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino - Pino Torinese. Prime considerazioni-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Prefazione [al volume]-
Ronchi, Laura-Un ricordo di Vasco Ronchi
Proverbio, Edoardo-Il Servizio Internazionale delle Latitudini e la Stazione Astronomica di Carloforte: il periodo preparatorio e l'avvio dell'attività osservativa (1896-1899)-
Arrighi, Gino-Astronomia del Trecento : Seconda parte-
Banfi, Vittorio-Subjects of optics from Newton's 'Principia'
Badolati, Ennio-Annibale de Gasparis e l'Equazione di Keplero-
Balestrieri, Riccardo-François Rodolphe Corréard e l'introduzione dell'ora astronomica a Genova
Buffoni, LetiziaChlistovsky, FrancaGiovanni Virginio Schiaparelli e la meteorologia a Brera-
Cicenia, Salvatore-Il 'De Cometis' di Gian Camillo Gloriosi-
Manara, Alessandro-Schiaparelli e l'origine delle comete
Mancuso, SantiRagozzino, Ezio - Schettino, EdvigeNota sul piroeliometro di Claude-Servais Pouillet
Missana, Marco-Gli spettrografi Zeiss e Guidarelli dell'Osservatorio di Merate-
Tinazzi, Massimo-Two realizations of Antonio Cagnoli in Verona
Tuscano, Maria Luisa-La meridiana di Anton Maria Jaci nella Cattedrale di Messina-
Baratta, Giovanni Battista-A new determination of the birth year of Jesus Christ: astronomical and historical aspects
Drago, Antonino-La geometria adeguata alla teoria astronomica: il 'convenzionalismo' di Poincaré
Romano, Giuliano-Sulle direzioni equinoziali utilizzate nella Mesoamerica-
Lupato, Giovanni-SN 1054: A Supernova over the Middle Ages
Ruggieri, Francesco-Calendari lunari a Cuma
Vlora, Nedim R.Tucci, Francesca M.La fenice fra tempo e mito
Proverbio, Edoardo-Prefazione [al volume]-
Capaccioli, Massimo-Lettera di saluto [ai congressisti]-
Vicente, Raimundo O.-Principles to learn from the beginnings of the International Latitude Service-
Melchior, Paul-Evoluzione e mutazione del Servizio Internazionale del Movimento del Polo 1960-1970: dalle misure del suolo alle tecniche spaziali-
Proverbio, Edoardo-La Stazione astronomica di Carloforte e lo sviluppo del Servizio Internazionale delle Latitudini dal 1906 al 1915-
Mancuso, SantiOlostro Cirella, EmiliaLa direzione del Servizio Internazionale delle Latitudini all'Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte dal 1935 al 1948-
Ferreri, Walter-Il Servizio Internazionale delle Latitudini a Pino Torinese-
Débarbat, Suzanne-Une entreprise internationale d'avant le SIL: la 'Carte du Ciel'-
Casanovas, Juan S.J.-Contributo della Specola Vaticana al progetto 'Carte du Ciel'-
Cristaldi, SalvatoreMangano, Angela - Rodonò, MarcelloContributo dell'Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania al progetto della 'Carte du Ciel'-
Bucciarelli, BeatriceLattanzi, A. - Massone, G. - Poma, Angelo - Uras, SilvanoLa Carta del Cielo: un archivio storico di rinnovato interesse scientifico per l'astronomia alle soglie del XXI secolo-
Manara, AlessandroChlistovsky, FrancaIl contributo di Giovanni Schiaparelli alla organizzazione del Servizio Internazionale delle Latitudini dalla corrispondenza scientifica-
Mangianti, Franca-Rapporti dell'Ufficio Centrale con la Commissione geodetica per installare un servizio meteo presso la Stazione astronomica di Carloforte-
Broglia, PietroManara, AlessandroNote su alcuni tra i primi studiosi italiani del moto del polo-
Takagi, Shigetsugu-The early history of the ILS Observatory of Mizusawa. On the research works of Prof. Hisashi Kimura-
Poma, Angelo-Chandler: chi era costui?-
Cenadelli, DavideTucci, PasqualeI contributi di studiosi italiani all'astronomia gravitazionale, astronomia osservativa e all'astronomia descrittiva alla fine del XIX secolo-
Banfi, Vittorio-Sul più lontano avvenire del sistema Terra-Luna, seguendo le vedute di G. H. Darwin-
Scalera, Giancarlo-Attualità delle concezioni geodinamiche di Giovanni Schiaparelli-
Drago, Antonino-Il problema dei due corpi: sintesi storica ed esame delle soluzioni con la matematica costruttiva-
Missana, Marco-Ricordi di Carloforte-
Zinno, Antonio-Ricordi della mia esperienza a Carloforte-
Buffoni, LetiziaMangianti, FrancaOsservazioni meteorologiche inedite del 1600-
Stavinschi, Magda-Astronomical coordinate determinations in Romania-
Tuscano, Maria Luisa-Nuove acquisizioni sulla misura del tempo nell'Abbazia di S. Martino delle Scale-
Falagario, RaffaeleVlora, Nedim R.Due cattedrali cluniacensi: Acerenza e Venosa-
Vlora, Nedim R.-La precessione degli equinozi nelle culture egizia e indù-
Romano, Giuliano-Almanacchi di Venere in Mesoamerica-
Iannaccone, Isaia-Lo scienziato gesuita A. Gaubil (1689-1759) e il 'Bu Tian Ge': Canzoni dei movimenti del cielo, manuale di astronomia cinese del VI secolo-
Bertola, FrancescoCalvani, Massimo - Curi, UmbertoForeword [del volume]-
Curi, Umberto-Cosmology at the crossroad: science or philosophy?-
Gratton, Livio-Cosmology and epistemology
Longo, Oddone-Epicurean cosmology: a "Steady-State Universe"-
Badaloni, Nicola-The infinity theme in Galilei-
Zellini, Paolo-Infinity, finite and error-
Arp, Halton-How can philosophy cope with changing fashions in science-
Sini, Carlo-Boundaries of the world and ubiquity of the mind-
Bellone, Enrico-Classic and non-intentional consequences of some Newtonian problems-
Heidmann, Jean-1980's cosmology andd bioastronomy: an Odyssean perspective
Pecker, Jean-Claude-The search for valid theories of the universe
Hoyle, Fred-Some remarks on cosmology and biology-
Narlikar, Jayant V.-The role of quantum phenomena in our understanding of the universe
Kippenhahn, Rudolf-Edwin Powell Hubble and cosmology-
Ellis, George-Major themes in the relation between philosophy and cosmology-
Penrose, Roger-What does the Big Bang tell us about quantum gravity?-
Bodei, Remo-How the world ceased to be eternal: Christian objections to Pagan cosmology-
Gratton, Livio-The cosmic experiment-
Davies, Paul-The arrow of time-
Rees, Martin-Will the universe expand for ever?-
Weidemann, Volker-The concept of the universe and the problem of reality-
Heidmann, Jean-Final panel discussion [1]-
Sciama, Dennis W.-Final panel discussion [2]-
Casanova, Juan S.J.Final panel discussion [3]-
Moscati, Sabatino-Parole di saluto [della Presidenza dell'Accademia]-
Ruggles, Clive-The past, present and future of archaeoastronomy-
Iwaniszewski, Stanislaw-Archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy: methodological issues-
Sena Chiesa, Gemma-Il 'vicus' romano di Calvatone-Bedriacum: l'evidenza archeologica, gli orientamenti strutturali, le interpretazioni archeoastronomiche-
Traversari, Gustavo-Esperienze archeo-astronomiche nell'isola di Murano, a Venezia-
Romano, Giuliano-Archeoastronomia: metodi scientifici ed esperienze-
Vlora, Nedim R.-[Dolmen e sepolcri a tumulo nella Puglia centrale e in Sardegna: aspetti archeologici e astronomici] L'ambiente naturale-
Striccoli, Rodolfo-[Dolmen e sepolcri a tumulo nella Puglia centrale e in Sardegna: aspetti archeologici e astronomici] Aspetti archeologici-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Dolmen, tombe di gigante e sepolcri a tumulo in Puglia e in Sardegna: aspetti astronomici-
Tiné, Santo-I due santuari di Monte d'Accoddi-
Castellani, Vittorio-Necropoli di tumuli ed archeoastronomia-
Lebeuf, Arnold-Architecture, peinture, astronomie-
Moscati, Paola-Informatica nelle ricerche astronomiche-
Pettinato, Giovanni-Archeologia e astronomia in Mesopotamia-
Lanfranchi, Giovanni-Astronomia e politica in età neo-assira-
Hunger, Hermann-Babylonian astronomical texts-
Lilliu, Giovanni-Il mondo dei megaliti-
Pettinato, Giovanni-L'astrologia caldea e l'architettura templare in Mesopotamia-
Striccoli, Rodolfo-[Ulteriori ricerche sui sepolcri a tumulo in Terra di Bari e Matera] Aspetti archeologici-
Vlora, Nedim R.-[Ulteriori ricerche sui sepolcri a tumulo in Terra di Bari e Matera] Aspetti archeoastronomici-
Iannaccone, Isaia-La più antica rappresentazione della sfera celeste cinese: i Quattro Palazzi-
Vlora, Nedim R.Tucci, Francesca M.Le conoscenze astronomiche nell'antico Egitto-
Angioni, Giulio-Cosmo e habitat-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Banca dati di monumenti pre-istorici e storici di interesse archeoastronomico-
Moscati, Paola-La tipologia dei monumenti di carattere archeoastronomico: proposta di una lista terminologica-
Iwaniszewski, Stanislaw-The development of a regional archaeoastronomy: the case of Central-Eastern Europe-
Romano, Giuliano-Archeoastronomia in Italia e in Europa-
Fales, Frederik Mario-Templi e luoghi di culto del dio lunare in Alta Mesopotamia-
Franco, Maria Cristina-Brevi note sul megalitismo nel Salento-
Bertola, FrancescoLilliu, Giovanni - Castellani, Vittorio - Traversari, Gustavo - Romano, Giuliano - Proverbio, Edoardo - Salvini, GiorgioTavola rotonda su problematiche relative alle ricerche di archeoastronomia[Interdisciplinarietà, corsi internazionali, metodi di lavoro, studi regionali con particolare riguardo all'ambiente sardo]
Romano, GiulianoTraversari, GustavoPresentazione [della Rivista italiana di archeoastronomia]-
Gregori, Giovanni P.Gregori, Lucia G.Archaeoastronomy and the Study of Global Environmental ChangeL'uomo è un efficiente strumento di registrazione dell'ambiente su un intervalllo di alcune decine di migliaia di anni. Necessita tuttavia di una adeguata calibrazione, per quanto riguarda le sue capacità di determinazione...
Romano, Giuliano-Astronomia e matematica precolombiana. Ragioni e limitiSome possible reasons of the different levels of the scientific knowledges of the classic Maya in comparison with the others precolumbian cultures are suggested in this paper.
Castellani, Vittorio-Italia: archeoastronomia e necropoli preistoricheThis paper investigates astronomical orientations of burial tumuli in three necropolises in southern and central Italy dating back to prehistoric to protohistoric times. South of Sicily, a new topographical survey of the Neolithic "Sese Grande" in the Pantelleria
Castellani, Vittorio-Evidenze di orientamenti astronomici in edifici dell’antico Egitto
Proverbio, EdoardoCalledda, PinoSugli orientamenti e sulle visuali di pozzi sacri esistenti nella Sardegna centro-meridionale: primi rilievi
Vlora, Nedim R.-L’armonia delle sfere celesti. Dall’antico Egitto al Medioevo
Calledda, PinoMurru, GiorgioMonumenti d’interesse archeoastronomico nel territorio di Laconi (Nuoro)
Castellani, Vittorio-Note sugli orientamenti urbani nel mondo etrusco-romano
Magini, Leonardo-Astronomia e calendario nell’antica Roma
Tosi, Giovanna-Lo Zodiaco in fonti letterarie e iconografiche di età romana
Ghelfi, Maria-Il templum caeleste e la natura loci nei Gromatici Veteres
Ghedini, Francesca-Zodiaco e propaganda nel mondo romano: la formazione del repertorio
Falagario, RaffaeleGiordano, EleonoraRiferimenti astronomici in San Leonardo di Siponto
Vlora, Nedim R.Falagario, Raffaele - Tucci, Francesca M. - Giordano, EleonoraRiferimenti astronomici nelle Ecclesiae Omnium Sanctorum di Terra di Bari
Incerti, Manuela-Astronomia e Architettura nel Medioevo. Computo del tempo ed allineamenti astronomici nelle prime abbazie cistercensi
Vlora, Nedim R.-La cosmologia egizia: origine e divenire del mondo
Pasquali, Davide-Il primo traduttore italiano del libro sacro dei Quichè: Guido Valeriano Callegari, aspetti di cosmogonia amerindiana
Castellani, Vittorio-Problemi e sviluppi dell’archeoastronomia moderna-
Calzolari, EnricoGori, DavideUn’ipotesi di lavoro: osservatori astronomici megalitici nella fascia di latitudine attorno a 45°
Calledda, PinoProverbio, EdoardoAnalisi statistica degli orientamenti di tombe megalitiche in Sardegna
Proverbio, EdoardoCalledda, PinoOrientamenti di dolmen e di tombe preistoriche nella Corsica centro-meridionale
Marchisio, L.Manara, Alessandro - Gaspani, AdrianoRicerche sulla tomba dei giganti di S’Ena e Tomes (Dorgali) in Sardegna
Vlora, Nedim R.Falagario, Raffaele - Formicola, W. - Giordano, Eleonora - Bari, SavinaSan Pietro di Balsignano (Bari)
Bonòra, VittorioMarano Bonòra, Adriana - Codebò, Mario - De Santis, HenryGli orientamenti astronomici delle chiese di S. Giulia e S. Margherita di Capo Noli (SV)
Serafini, S.-La scrittura celeste: nell’alfabeto un’antica testimonianza archeoastronomica?
Sermonti, Giuseppe-Un tentativo di raffronto tra stazioni lunari e alfabeti
Gaspani, Adriano-L’astronomia dei Camuni
Magini, Leonardo-Eclissi e regalità: un rapporto difficile (Babilonia 1900 a.C. – Roma 1600 d.C.)
Proverbio, EdoardoCalledda, PinoMisure di orientamenti di tombe megalitiche e allineamenti di menhir a Goni e Laconi nella Sardegna centro-meridionale
Sermonti, Giuseppe-Lettura archeoastronomica del disco di Festo
Ruggieri, Francesco-Considerazioni su di un’ipotesi archeoastronomica (Il c. d. Tempio di Artemide a Cuma)
Gaspani, Adriano-L'astronomia dei Vichinghi
Calzolari, EnricoGori, DavideGeografia sacra in India ed in Lunigiana
Vlora, Nedim R.Falagario, RaffaeleUn ottagono scomposto
Bonòra, VittorioCalzolari, Enrico - Codebò, Mario - De Santis, HenryAggiornamento sugli orientamenti astronomici delle monofore delle rovine della chiesa di San Lorenzo al Caprione (Lerici – La Spezia)
Incerti, ManuelaZaltron, NicolaProcedure e metodiche sperimentali di rilievo mediante laser-scanners 3D finalizzate alla lettura delle caratteristiche geometrico-astronomiche dell’Abbazia di Pomposa
Romano, Giuliano-Analogie tra certe strutture in orizzonti archeoastronomici diversi
Lanciano, NicolettaTutino, MarinaOrse del Cielo, Orse della Terra
Amadasi Guzzo, Maria GiuliaCastellani, VittorioLa Coppa Foroughi: un atlante celeste del I millennio a. C.
Castellani, Vittorio-Tivoli: Villa Adriana, Rocca Bruna e Astronomia
Vlora, Nedim R.-Gli orologi stellari dell’antico Egitto
Vlora, Nedim R.Falagario, Raffaele - Giordano, Eleonora - Bari, SavinaOrientamenti astronomici in alcune cattedrali della Terra di Bari
Dallaporta, AnnamariaMarcato, LucioIndia antica. Orientazione e corrispondenze celesti di edifici e abitati (cenni)
Calzolari, EnricoOttavi, Antoine-MariNiolu (Corsica): da Roger Grosjean alla paleoastronomia
Codebò, Mario-Archeoastronomia in Val di Fassa (TN)
Gaspani, Adriano-Tara. L’antica residenza dei re d’Irlanda. Aspetti di astronomia e geometria sacra antiche irlandesi
Cernuti, SilviaMariani, Luigi - Antonello, ElioLa necropoli di Casalecchio di Reno e la ricostruzione del calendario agricolo celtico
Magini, Leonardo-I moti di Venere e le feste delle donne nel calendario di Roma antica
Gaspani, Adriano-Il GPS in archeoastronomia. Tecniche di rilevamento di siti archeologici di rilevanza archeoastronomica mediante tecniche satellitari GPS
Proverbio, Edoardo-Presentazione [del volume]-
Cernuti, Silvia-Il calendario di Coligny: il Sole e la Luna per i Celti
Cernuti, Silvia-Introduzione all'archeoastronomia. Nuove tecniche di analisi dei dati
Falagario, RaffaeleVlora, Nedim R.All'alba del Giorgo Giuliano. Precessione e moti propri
Gaspani, Adriano-Applicazione di tecniche satellitari GPS al rilevamento planimetrico dei siti di rilevanza archeoastronomica
Codebò, MarioDe Santis, HenryStudi di archeoastronomia nel Genovesato
Codebò, Mario-Archeoastronomia in Val Venosta: S. Procolo di Naturno (BZ)
Aimi, AntonioGaspani, AdrianoCorrelazioni calendariali e astronomiche nella Conquista del Messico
Calzolari, EnricoFadda, Lello - Gori, DavideAltare orientato all'interno di un nuraghe in Villanovafranca (OR)
Grande, Marisa-Modelli cosmici in archeoastronomia
Tinazzi, Massimo-Le ricerche di Guido Valeriano Callegari sulla geografia e cosmografia dei popoli mesoamericani
Pasquali, Daniele-Guido Valeriano Callegari: dalla 'filosofia astronomica' alla conoscenza delle antiche civiltà amerinde
Castaldi, FrancescoPansecchi, LuigiComete: l'evoluzione delle orbite e del pensiero. Dal cerchio alla parabola attraverso la retta di Keplero
Buffoni, LetiziaMangianti, Cesare - Mangianti De Angelis, FrancaGerberto: un papa astronomo tra mito e storia
Drago, AntoninoSaccone, C.La nascita della teoria del caos in astronomia. Poincaré ha davvero scoperto il caos?
Lanciano, NicolettaTutino, MarinaAstronomia in città: Villa Adriana a Tivoli e il Pantheon di Roma
Polcaro, Vito Francesco-L'astuzia di Yang Weide
Tuscano, Maria Luisa-Giuseppe Piazzi Cittadino Palermitano. Miscellanea d'archivio
Buonanno, Roberto-Presentazione [del Congresso]-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Premessa [del volume]-
Castaldi, Francesco-Dopo Keplero, in attesa di Newton
Tinazzi, Massimo-Le osservazioni astronomiche di Francesco Bianchini nei codici bianchiniani della Biblioteca Capitolare di Verona
Dimitriadis, Giorgio-Il pensiero scientifico greco dalla caduta del Bisantio ai primi anni del 'Rinascimento ellenico'
Mangianti, CesareMangianti De Angelis, Franca - Buffoni, LetiziaI poeti latini sugli accadimenti nella sfera celeste
Masani, Alberto-Sull'origine dell'astrofisica
Polcaro, Vito FrancescoValsecchi, Giovanni B. - Verderame, LorenzoL'eclisse prima della battaglia
Pasquali, Daniele-Il primo traduttore italiano del Libro sacro dei Quiché: Guido Valeriano Callegari, aspetti di cosmogonia amerindiana
Magini, Leonardo-Il calendario romuleo e i suoi rapporti con i fenomeni astronomici
Camino, NéstorLanciano, NicolettaLe orme del Choike: una costellazione patagonica
Proverbio, Edoardo-La meteorologia dei fenomeni rimarchevoli e degli eventi estremi del XVIII secolo: teorie sull'origine e sul comportamento dei venti
Calisi, Marinella-Il museo scientifico-
Calisi, MarinellaSuriano, StefaniaMuseo e scuola: un'esperienza di didattica museale-
Capaccioli, Massimo-Presentazione [del Congresso]-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Premessa [del volume]-
Torrini, Maurizio-Aspetti del newtonianesimo nell’Italia del Settecento-
Castaldi, Francesco-Keplero e l’equante
Polcaro, Vito Francesco-Le Supernovae dell’Undicesimo secolo
Mangianti, CesareMangianti De Angelis, Franca - Buffoni, LetiziaManilio: un astronomo quasi sconosciuto
De Cesaris, Giuseppe-Congiunzioni Giove-Satumo e storia giudaico-cristiana
Badolati, Ennio-Ipotesi alternative al moto kepleriano. L’ipotesi ellittica semplice e l’ipotesi di Mercatore
Boccia, Teresa-Un astronomo poco conosciuto dell’Osservatorio partenopeo: Leopoldo del Re
Tinazzi, Massimo-Un approccio archeoastronomico ante litteram: Francesco Bianchini e il suo metodo per fondere archeologia, storia e astronomia
Pasquali, Daniele-Flammarion, Callegari, Schiaparelli, Lowell: il pianeta rosso e la pluralità dei mondi abitati
Drago, Antonino-Riflessioni sulla storia della astronomia rispetto alla storia della fisica: il problema cruciale del secolo XIX
Martini Masani, Adele-La rotazione della terra, il passaggio del finito all’infinito e la nascita della scienza-
Proverbio, Edoardo-Presentazione [del volume]-
Badolati, Ennio-Sopra un risultato astronomico di Nicola Fergola
Bianchi, EttoreCodebò, MarioIpotesi astronomica intorno ad una epigrafe dedicatoria di età bizantina a Grado
Boccia, Teresa-Sopra un'osservazione del padre Niccolò Maria Carcani sul transito di Venere del 1761
Bonòra, VittorioCodebò, Mario - De Santis, Henry - Gaspani, Adriano - Marano Bonòra, Adriana - Medioli, DiegoSimbolismo mistico e orientazioni astronomiche nella chiesa romanica di S. Paragorio a Noli
Castaldi, Francesco-Indagine sul moto degli absidi delle orbite planetarie (Lavori in corso)
Elidoro, Claudio-‘Cronica Rampona’ and the SN 1054, a re-evaluation
Susović Hefti, Snježana-Ragusa (Dubrovnik) e la famiglia Boscovich-Bettera-
Lugli, Mario Umberto-Geminiano Montanari (1633-1687): un astronomo fra flussi, influssi e riflussi-
Maffei, Paolo-L'origine dell'Osservatorio astronomico di Roma sul Campidoglio
Manara, Alessandro-Armonie celesti dall’antichità al XVIII secolo: ricerche preliminari
Mangianti, CesareMangianti De Angelis, Franca - Buffoni, LetiziaL’espansionismo dell’Islam e la astronomia del mondo musulmano
Martini Masani, Adele-Come il 'mule driver' Milton L. Humason partecipò alla scoperta dell’espansione dell’universo
Tinazzi, Massimo-Telescopi e canocchiali ‘senza tubo’ di Francesco Bianchini e Giuseppe Campani
Tuscano, Maria Luisa-Riferimenti astronomici nella Villa Giulia di Palermo-
Antonello, Elio-Presentazione [del volume]-
Polcaro, Vito Francesco-La Supernova del 1181 nell’affresco di San Pietro in Valle e nei documenti orientaliLe supernovae galattiche sono eventi rarissimi e le loro testimonianze sono estremamente importanti sia dal punto di vista astrofisico che da quello storico. Fino ad ora, tutti i dati relativi a supernovae storiche sono stati ottenuti da fonti scritte, con l'unica possibile eccezione del pittogramma del Chaco Canyon, in Arizona, che potrebbe rappresentare l'esplosione della Supernova del 1054 (SN 1054); questa associazione è per altro stata recentemente posta in discussione (Shaefer, 2004). Vi è però un possibile nuovo caso, molto meglio documentato, di un dipinto che potrebbe rappresentare la SN 1181, a Ferentillo, in Umbria. [Estratto dall'introduzione]
Bianchi, EttoreCodebò, Mario - Veneziano, GiuseppeIpotesi astronomica sulla ‘Stella di Betlemme’ e sulle aspettative escatologiche coeve nel mondo mediterraneoSince about the second century b. C. to about the second century a. C. several eschatological hopes spread over the Asiatic, African and European Mediterranean area among Latin, Greek, Jewish, etc. peoples, sometimes being the cause of rebellions too: peoples were waiting for a new age! When Jesus Christ was born, an unknown star guided the Magi to Bethlehem. An accurate reading of the second chapter of the Gospel according to St. Matthew shows that this unknown star was seen only by Magi. In fact king Herod was obliged to ask them explanations. But who were the Magi? They were not wizards; they were astronomers and astrologers. Therefore the unknown star which only they saw either it was a St. Matthew’s lie or it was a heaven phenomenon or body which only professional astronomers could see. Such a kind of heavenly phenomenon or body are both the aequinoctial points – vernal aequinoctial point γ and autumnal aequinoctial point Ω - and their praecessional movement. Just at the end of the first century b. C., the two aequinoctial points went into the new zodiacal constellations Pisces and Virgo respectively; they had been in Aries and in Libra respectively throughout 2147,5 years. We suggest that the unknown star that only Magi saw it was the new precessional positions of vernal point γ and autumnal point Ω in Pisces and in Virgo respectively. But another rare and meaningful heavenly phenomenon took place in 7 b. C.: planets Jupiter and Saturn got their closest angular separation three times in the same constellation in nine months, which was just Pisces! We agree with people who suggest that this threefold closest angular separation between Jupiter and Saturn is the David Star with six tips which got its previous threefold closest angular separation in Pisces i in 980 b. C. But a most rare circumstance happened in 7 b. C.: the threefold closest angular separation of Jupiter and Saturn happened in the same constellation where the Sun began to rise at the vernal aequinox. A similar heavenly circumstance took place about in 4097 b. C. in Taurus last time! We suggest that the peoples of the first century b. C. thought that this very very rare heavenly phenomenon was the beginning of a new era. We suggest that this idea was strengthened by the entry of autumnal point Ω in Virgo constellation, because, according to the Greek-Latin mithology, Virgo was the goddess of Justice who was living with mankind on the Earth during the Golden Age but who flew to the Heaven when mankind worsened from the Silver Age onwards. At the end of the first century b. C. Virgo was coming back and a son of hers, the Sun, "was born" - i. e.: it rose - in it at September (autumnal aequinox): a new Sun for a new age. We suggest that this "birth" in Virgo was the pattern or the heavenly mark of some ancient myths and religious beliefs: the child referred to by Virgilio in his fourth Bucolica, the child begotten by a virgin according to Isaiah 7,14, the maidenly birth of Jesus. We suggest that the contemporaneity of all these heavenly events – 1) aequinoctial Sun entry into Pisces and into Virgo after 2147,5 years; 2) the threefold closest angular separation of Jupiter and Saturn in Pisces after 973,1 years; 3) the concomitance of the threefold closest angular separation of Jupiter and Saturn in the same constellation in which one of the two aequinoctial points has just arrived after about 4100 years; 4) the return of Virgo constellation and the "birth" = rising of autumnal aequinoctial Sun in it – was the factor of the eschatological hopes for a new age at the beginning of the Christian era.
Lupato, Giovanni-Raffigurazione della stella di Ipparco su una moneta di MitridateScopo di questa relazione è la presentazione di una moneta di Mitridate re del Ponto, al cui verso appare un’effigie stellare che potrebbe essere la raffigurazione della stessa stella nuova osservata da Ipparco nel 134 a.C. Nonostante esista una notevole discrepanza temporale (la moneta è infatti del 90 a.C.) esistono vari elementi che convincono di questa tesi. Approfitteremo di una sintetica discussione che ripercorre alcuni tentativi di comprendere la natura dell’astro che diede ad Ipparco lo stimolo per la realizzazione del suo catalogo stellare, proprio per veder emergere i riferimenti storici basilari per l’attribuzione in oggetto, ovvero la serie di elementi che convincono che la stella raffigurata sulla moneta sia lo stesso astro osservato dal grande astronomo greco, e così importante nella Storia dell’Astronomia.
Banfi, Vittorio-Il moto dei pianeti secondo J. KeplerNel Seicento si realizza in Europa la rifondazione della scienza, dopo secoli dominati dal pensiero di Aristotele. Protagonisti di questa grande svolta sono tre insigni pensatori: G. Galilei, J. Kepler e I. Newton. Il primo è colui che introduce il metodo sperimentale – matematico, applicandolo soprattutto ai fenomeni di meccanica studiati in laboratorio. L’opera del secondo, nella sua estensione specifica di astronomo teorico, verrà qui esaminata con maggiore accuratezza. Infine I. Newton, assumendo come base l’opera dei due precedenti, fornisce una completa sintesi unificando la meccanica terrestre e la meccanica celeste.
Boccia, Teresa-Sopra un procedimento sviluppato da Annibale de Gasparis per migliorare un risultato astronomico di Nicola FergolaIn this paper we examine some solutions of Kepler’s problem found by de Gasparis, Machin and Hermann. These approximate metods reduce Kepler’s equation in to an algebraic equation and, of corse, we compare the goodness of the approximation among the two metods.
Morici, Marina-Maupertuis ed il Principio della Minima AzioneIn this paper we expose the principle of least action by favouring the historical development. Moreover we speak about the father of this principle: Pierre Luis Moreau de Maupertuis.
Castaldi, Francesco-Una prova azzardataStarting from a real phenomenon regarding the displacement of the Earth’s Poles, the author goes back to discussions of some centuries ago among astronomers and scientists on a consequent latitude variation of places on the Earth. A great meridian line was thought able to furnish an indirect confirmation of this phenomenon helping the hypothesis of a not steady Earth; and it had the honour of being cited in the celebrated “Dialogue” (1632) of Galilei. But, after about twenty years, new measures revealed that this line was affected by a deviation since the time of its construction.
Tinazzi, Massimo-Le ricerche di Francesco Bianchini sul globo (Atlante) FarnesianoWe handle a short historical analysis of Francesco Bianchini’s writings about the Atlante Farnese, within the context of other models of celestial spheres realized in different centuries. The involved troublesome about the effort in dating of the sky depicted in the globe and the spatial and temporal location of the sculptor of the original statue crosses many authors of astronomical studies, star catalogues, constructors of other globes in ancient times. However, today probably it is not possible to improve quantitatively the epoch range of dating of the original globe in consequence of the excessive uncertainties about some approximation elements, beyond the intrinsic limits that the sculptural technique forced the artist who realized it.
Dimitriadis, Giorgio-Rigas Ferrèos: il primo divulgatore scientifico della Grecia modernaNel presente lavoro si affronta la complessa personalità del primo patriota nonché martire del risveglio ellenico. Percorrendo la sua vita e i suoi scritti (soprattutto quelli di carattere scientifico), attraverso l’Europa del 18° secolo, ci si avvicina meglio alle radici del pensiero scientifico Greco dopo i moti insurrezionali del 1821-25.
Martini Masani, Adele-La tarda età della Pietra Nuova, l’età del Rame, del Bronzo e degli osservatori archeoastronomici. Il Disco di NebraIn questi ultimi anni sono state fatte ricerche di particolare importanza riguardanti osservatori astronomici che datano alcuni millenni di anni fa. Tra questi citiamo quello di Goseck di circa 7000 anni fa (tarda età della pietra). Si illustra inoltre un reperto archeoastronomico che la bibliografia interpreta come la prima rappresentazione grafica del cosmo; si tratta di un disco che è attribuibile all’età del bronzo. Queste ricerche non hanno avuto finora l’interesse che meritano e ho condotto una ricerca bibliografica e su Internet i cui risultati espongo in questa comunicazione.
Felolo, Luigi-Orientamenti di alcuni menhir dalla Cornovaglia alla LiguriaSome menhir alignements are oriented. For this reason it was measured a small number of menhir from South England to Liguria to verify the opportunity of this check.
Calzolari, EnricoJègues, Chantal - Ottavi, Antoine-MariL’equinozio in paleoastronomia: il problema epistemologico e il problema semanticoMore than the measure of solstices, the measure of the equinox presided over the understanding by the human being of its environment. It has been considered impossible, because those who built this term did not possess instrument precise enough and reliable of measuring time (in other words a mechanical system of verifiable clock). In consequence of this idea the equinoctial alignments may be simply owed at random, and they cannot be qualified as “equinoctial” being equinox not visible. We have found in Corsica examples of equinoctial alignments and we can demonstrate that it is possible at 45° of Latitude to obtain it by the perfect linear shadow of the stick, as in the Lascaux’s Grotto Chantal Jègues has discovered the Vernal Point in the Scorpio and the Autumn One in the Taurus.
Antonello, Elio-Presentazione [del volume]-
Antonello, Elio (?)-Prefazione. Ricordo di Alberto Masani e Vittorio Castellani-
Leschiutta, SigfridoTavella, PatriziaRallentamento secolare della Terra. Raccordo tra diversi metodi per la stima del suo valoreDa circa due secoli si parla di un rallentamento della velocità di rotazione della Terra, fenomeno che prima fu ipotizzato e che invece da circa mezzo secolo viene regolarmente misurato. Gli scopi di questa nota sono quattro. • Un breve panorama sulle conoscenze attuali del fenomeno, con le conseguenze “civili”, e le implicazioni sulle Scale di Tempo. • Un riassunto delle prime ipotesi. • Le tecniche attuali di misura. • Le prove, alcune delle quali paleontologiche ed altre di epoca storica sul rallentamento e sulla costanza o meno del rallentamento.
Badolati, Ennio-La scienza astronomica in Edgar Allan PoeIn this paper we analyze some Poe’s tales characterized by astronomical arguments and after we show the deep scientific culture of Poe.
Castaldi, Francesco-Il 'caso' della Nebulosa di AndromedaThe 'Nebula in Andromeda’s belt' is an unusual case in the history of astronomical discoveries. Some documents reported its sighting twice round about the XI and XIV centuries, not before, which is strange for an object visible to the naked eye in dark skies. Finally its description, made possible by means of observations through a telescope, was published in 1614 by that Simon Mayr well known for his Galilean relations. Then, for another half a century, this deep sky object was no longer seen, but, when it did reappear, it was almost at the same time for several famous astronomers. The author tries to reconstruct these events by means of maps, catalogues and stellar atlases, where surprises were not lacking. Nevertheless, he couldn’t find in literature a justification concerning the difficulties that this celestial object met to be taken into consideration by the astronomers.
Mangianti De Angelis, FrancaMangianti, Cesare - Buffoni LetiziaRegiomontano e dal Pozzo Toscanelli artefici della rinascita dell'astronomia nel mondo occidentaleDopo il dominio assoluto ed incontrastato esercitato, dal IX al XV secolo, dal mondo arabo-musulmano nel campo dell’astronomia, in occidente rinasce e si incrementa l’interesse e lo studio per la ricerca in astronomia. La cultura occidentale europea inizia nel XV secolo l’ascesa e si dimostra pronta ad accogliere l’eredità spirituale della cultura araba. Tra gli artefici di questa rinascita e rinnovato interesse i maggiori responsabili e gli esponenti più autorevoli sono Regiomontano e dal Pozzo Toscanelli. Sulla base delle loro ricerche e delle loro opere sperimentali di osservazione regolare e costante del cielo essi forniscono il primo impulso originale ed iniziano l’affrancamento dalla mediazione araba, dalla irrazionalità dell’astrologia aprendo un cammino alle grandi costruzioni cosmologiche dei secoli seguenti, instaurando un metodologia di nuovo rigore che ne garantirà il successo scientifico. Le loro opere aprono la strada ad uomini come Brahe, Copernico, Keplero e Galileo. Uomini questi che, con le loro teorie innovative e rivoluzionarie per i tempi oscurantisti in cui vissero, hanno rappresentato una rivoluzione epocale non solo in campo astronomico, ma anche in campo sperimentale e metodologico. Con il loro coraggio nell’affermazione delle loro idee hanno permesso di sviluppare ed affermare le nuove teorie planetarie: idee e metodo sperimentale che hanno aperto, definitivamente, la strada alla astronomia moderna, laica e razionale dei secoli successivi, fondata sulla certezza della operatività sperimentale.
Tinazzi, Massimo-La cosmologia settecentesca e gli interesssi astronomici di Gregorio Piccoli del Faggiol (1680-1755)Lo studio dei contributi scientifici dei personaggi “minori” nell’ambito della storia dell’astronomia ha portato alla riscoperta e rivalutazione della poliedrica figura di Gregorio Piccoli del Faggiol che fu sicuramente oscurato dalla personalità di un suo concittadino, mons. Francesco Bianchini (Verona 1662 - Roma 1729), un geniale studioso e astronomo veronese autore del progetto della meridiana di Santa Maria degli Angeli a Roma. Nelle due pubblicazioni su temi astronomici di Piccoli si possono avere indizi sulla struttura del metodo e sulla impostazione degli argomenti presentati, inoltre ci forniscono il quadro delle conoscenze che erano disponibili e diffuse presso la classe più colta sulla comprensione dell’universo conosciuto e quindi dei principali modelli che erano stati elaborati fino a quel momento.
Badolati, EnnioBoccia, TeresaL'equazione di Hill nella teoria del moto lunareIn this paper we expose the historical development of Hill's differential equation in lunar theory. Besides we analyse, in an historical context [environment] how rose the idea of an infinite determinant and the problem of its convergence.
Ciccone, Sandra-Sulla convergenza del determinante di HillBy considering the Hill’s infinite determinant, we analyze some numerical aspects, such as the study of the convergence and the valuation of the characteristic roots. At the end of the paper we make some historical and bibliographical notes.
Morici, Marina-Sulla posizione nel moto iperbolicoNel moto kepleriano di un secondario attorno a un primario, esiste anche il caso, non comune, iperbolico. La posizione si determina con un’equazione analoga a quella di Keplero nel caso ellittico e di tale equazione vengono esaminati alcuni metodi risolutivi.
Di Iorio, Donato-La serie di Kapteyn in meccanica celesteIn questo lavoro, considerata l’equazione di Keplero: M = E − ε sin E , 0 < ε < 1 , 0 ≤ M ≤ 2 π , viene tracciata la storia delle serie di Kapteyn, che traggono spunto dalla soluzione della stessa equazione di Keplero, attraverso una serie trigonometrica i cui coefficienti sono riconducibili alle funzioni di Bessel di prima specie. Rinviando ad un testo di astronomia (ad esempio L. Rosino) per le definizioni delle anomalie, ricordiamo che all’argomento hanno contribuito Lagrange, che calcolò solo alcuni termini della sviluppo di E (anomalia eccentrica) e di r (raggio vettore), Bessel, che, attraverso le serie di Fourier, ricavò in funzione di M (anomalia media) e di ε , l’anomalia eccentrica E , il raggio vettore r e l’anomalia vera w ed, infine, l’astronomo olandese Kapteyn.
Lavorgna, Pasquale-Sull'insieme di convergenza della serie di Lagrange nella meccanica celesteSi esamina, al variare dell’eccentricità ε l’insieme di convergenza della serie di Lagrange che risolve il problema di Keplero.
De Cesaris, Giuseppe-La fenice svelata. Nuova interpretazione astronomica di un mito millenarioPerceiving the 'bennu'/phoenix bird as a symbol of heavenly events, a new proposal of astronomical interpretation of the myth is proposed here. The author holds the thesis that the phoenix is the allegorical symbol of the multiple Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions, i.e. JS conjunctions which, seen from the Earth, are made up of three or two alignements between the two planets in a timespan of about 205 days. The method has been that to search in the wide greek, latin and coptic literature as many as possibile dated appearances of the phoenix and to verify, by means of an ephemeris calculator software, if in those periods and times the two giant planets had aligned or not repeatedly in few months. The results of these controls and the statistical analisis of the repetition time of the planetary phenomenon allow to conclude that the phoenix has really been mithically used as allegoric symbol of the Jupiter-Saturn multiple conjunctions, a series of astronomical events which have been very important to gain the right knowledge on the structure and proportions of our planetary system.
Stelluti, Napoleone-Le meridiane di 'Larinum' antiche e moderneLa città di cui parliamo è Larino antico municipium d’epoca romana, in Provincia di Campobasso nel Molise, ricca di storia e di importanti ritrovamenti archeologici.
Antonello, Elio-Presentazione [del volume][Contributi presentati al V e al VI Congresso ma non compresi negli atti relativi]
Antonello, Elio-Una proposta per la discussione del concetto di tempoA discussion about the formation of the concept of time requires a multi-disciplinary approach, which is no easy task. A very short presentation of some critical items concerning time in various disciplines is reported, and the difficulties related to the western way of thinking are pointed out. The possible differences of the concept of time during Palaeolithic, Neolithic and historical ages are mentioned, and the important role played by astronomy in this context is remarked. The conclusion suggests 'astronomy in culture' as the place where the various disciplines could meet in order to discuss usefully about the formation of the concept of time.
Magli, Giulio-On the relationship between archaeoastronomy and 'exact' sciences-
Vlora, Nedim R.-La cronometria egizia: il tempo del coccodrilloAccording to Plutarch in ancient Egypt the number 60 had great importance in the study of the sky. A careful reading of ancient texts can discover a way to count time based on 60, still unknon to Egyptologists.
Dallaporta, AnnamariaMarcato, LucioUn quadrato per cielo. Riflessioni sulla natura celeste del quadrato e sulle sue applicazioni nell'India anticaPossibly from the beginning of the First Vedic Period (sixteenth century B.C.) all constructions in India, after a lengthy series of checks and complex numerical calculations (which required solutions in which some small imperfection was implicit), were planned according to the 'Vastupurusha-mandala' scheme, square like the Sky. The necessary correspondence between what was being built and the Sky would therefore be achieved also via this geometrical figure. The square was not the Sky seen with the eyes, however, but seen ... with the mind. It can therefore be assumed that the 'cognitive' square prevailed over the visual one as happens when a square is seen from various points of view, other than frontally. Consequently any quadrilateral (as a square in any position would be seen) can be considered an aspect of the square, i.e. it possesses a 'square nature'. In particular situations, therefore, any quadrilateral could be considered a square. While the figures of holy objects were generally square, in the case of the layout of many settlements, correspondence with the Sky could be ensured also with figures that were not necessarily quadrilateral. It is assumed that the 'square nature' of the latter was achieved by orthogonality, a quality of the celestial cardinal directions, and by the Centre, in itself square, produced by the intersection of these directions.
Gaspani, Adriano-L'astronomia nell'Irlanda antica e medioevale«...all intelligent people could estimate the hour of the night throughout the year by studying the position of the moon and stars». This statement contained into the Sanas Chormaic written by Cormac Mac Cuilennain (836-908 AD), bishop and king of Cashel, shows the widespread diffusion of the knowledge of Astronomy in the ancient Ireland. The astronomical allignments shown by the Irish megalithic monuments testifies the widespread knowledge of the points of rising and setting of the Sun, the Moon and the stars, at the local skyline during the prehistory until to the Bronze Age. During the Iron Age, in Ireland, a native idea of Celestial Sphere as well as some astronomical rules of splitting the sacred space, as well as a very peculiar calendar were developed. The information about the Irish proto-historical astronomy comes from the writings of the Irish Christian monks during the Middle Age, that propagated it together with the recipes of the Christian 'computus'. Many of the recipes of the prechristian astronomy is still surviving in the present Irish popular lores ad fairy tales.
Vlora, Nedim R.Falagario, RaffaeleOrientamenti astronomici di alcune cattedrali della Terra di BariThe guidelines of the aisles of some cathedrals in Central Apulia are discussed. The sunrise in the equinoctial days, the rise of Spica in Virgo, and the rise of Antares in Scorpio are the preferred orientations.
Gregori, Giovanni P.-Palaeoclimate and archaeoclimate. The natural causesLe cause naturali che controllano il clima ben sembra possano venire spiegate in un contesto di relazioni Galassia – Sole – Terra, conformemente allo schema seguente. Gli incontri del sistema solare con materia interstellare controllano, tramite la fisica solare ed il vento solare, l’induzione e.m. nella Terra, la geodinamo e l’ammontare dell’energia endogena. La Terra si comporta come una batteria di automobile, con tempi diversi di scarica e ricarica. Le variazioni temporali del rilascio di energia endogena causano un corrispondente andamento nelle esalazioni dal suolo e dunque nella chimica atmosferica. Ne risulta una modulazione sull’effetto serra e sulla biosfera, come ultimi anelli della catena causa/effetto. Le anomalie climatiche degli ultimi due millenni per le quali si ha notizia indiretta sembrano accordarsi molto bene con questa via 'interna' (le eccezioni molto sporadiche sono connesse ad eruzioni vulcaniche esplosive che hanno iniettato polvere in stratosfera). Questo schema interpretativo è stato costruito con induzione logica, con progressive aggiunte di dettagli derivanti da fatti osservazionali specifici, senza alcun modello fisico o matematico preconcetto. Per brevità solo pochi cenni sommari possono venire qui forniti. Una discussione più puntuale e dettagliata si trova in una monografia dell’autore apparsa nel 2002, ed in un’opera in 8 tomi in avanzata fase di completamento (Gregori, 2012).
Spedicato, Emilio-On the reversal of the rotational momentum of Earth: a derivation and analysis of the Herodotus equationAncient texts contain statements about the change of the year length in days, requiring adjustments of the calendars, and the change of the location where the Sun rises and sets, implying a change of the direction of the rotational momentum of the Earth, more precisely a reversal if the positions of sunrise and sunset would exactly interchange. Mechanisms that may change the axis direction have been recently considered. Changes due to impact with a sufficiently large asteroid or comet have been studied by Barbiero (2002); changes due to the torque by a sufficiently large body passing near the Earth have been considered by Woelfli and Baltensperger (1999). Changes of the orbital parameters, hence of the length of the year, have been considered by Brunini (1993) for the case of an impact. To our knowledge changes in both the rotation and revolution parameters, that are expected after this type of interaction, have never been modelled mathematically. Here we provide under simplifying assumptions such an analysis. [Introduzione]
Pagano, MarioRuggieri, FrancescoRicerche preliminari di archeoastronomia sui templi dell'area sannitico-molisanaI primi quattro anni di ricerca hanno potuto dimostrare inizialmente che i templi costruiti dai popoli Pentri e Irpini presentano l’ingresso rivolto verso un limitato arco di orizzonte posto a sud-est, compreso fra 106 e 160 gradi di azimut. L’analisi è stata poi estesa a tutti i popoli di lingua osca ottenendo i medesimi risultati. Un confronto con alcuni templi costruiti da Etruschi e Romani evidenzia una sostanziale differenza di impostazione.
Ranieri, Marcello-Contenuti geometrici, numerici, metrici e astronomici del tempio nuragico a pozzo 'Su Tempiesu' di OruneNel panorama delle fonti/templi a pozzo della Sardegna nuragica, Su Tempiesu oltre che per la sua notevole architettura si distingue per due particolarità che lo rendono eleggibile per un affidabile studio a carattere archeogeometrico e archeoastronomico. La prima è l’ottimo stato di conservazione per una antica frana che pur danneggiandolo in parte, lo ha protetto fino alla sua scoperta nel 1953. La seconda è la chiara rettangolarità della pianta. Un’analisi CAD ha permesso di individuare le principali connotazioni geometriche e numeriche dell’impianto che sono risultate riconducibili a combinazioni pitagoriche elementari. La stessa analisi ha permesso di ottenere, entro un contenuto margine di indeterminazione, il valore della unità di lunghezza impiegata dai costruttori nuragici (0,18 ± 0,01m). Nel sopralluogo del 20, 21, 22 e 23 giugno 2006 sono stati effettuati riscontri metrici a verifica e conferma della geometria e dell’unità di lunghezza individuate. Altri riscontri sulle fonti di Su Lidone di Su Pradu, e di Noddule, nel territorio circostante, hanno restituito valori di unità di lunghezza congrui con il valore trovato per Su Tempiesu. Si è infine potuto verificare l’allineamento dell’asse geometrico principale del monumento alla posizione del Sole all’alba del Solstizio Estivo entro trascurabili margini di errore.
Vlora, Nedim R.Falagario, RaffaeleOrientamenti astronomici delle cattedrali della Provincia di BariThe orientation of the naves of all the cathedrals of the province of Bari are discussed in this paper. All guidelines (except one) are derived from phenomena of the sky and religious holidays or official dedication.
Vlora, Nedim R.-Allineamenti e direttrici sulla superficie terrestre in età medievaleMany do not believe in the Middle Ages it was possible to identify a direction on the surface of the Earth. This article discusses this possibility and presents one of the many practical solutions already in use at the end of the 10th century.
Ienna, Domenico-La 'Preta ru Mulacchio' sul 'Monte della Stella'The present interdisciplinary research tries to contribute to the widening of knowledge of the phenomenon ‘Megalithism’ in Italy, investigating on the matter an area, until now rarely explored of our country, the Cilento (south-central region of Salerno province). In it, the monumental compound of the ‘Preta ru Mulacchio’ on the ‘Monte della Stella’- probably dating back around to the second millennium b.C. - seems to have functioned (incidentally?) as a site for the observation of celestial phenomena such as the determination of the winter solsticial times; may be that occurred in the context of propitiatory ceremonies of fecundity/fertility celebrated by an agricultural-sedentary community, whose symbolic links with a recent local ritualisms can be only supposed.
Dallaporta, AnnamariaMarcato, LucioRiferimenti a corpi celesti di frammenti scultorei dal sito di Kampil (Uttar Pradesh, India)The archaeological site of Kampil, well known since 1870, is the object of our studies. There have been collected and catalogued several fragments of figurative sculptures, originally parts of temples (9 th -11 th centuries A.D.) completely destroyed during the Muslim incursions (11 th -12 th cent. A.D.). The classification and a first iconographical description of fragments led us to identify some deities recognizable as celestial bodies of hindu astronomy-astrology.
Gaspani, Adriano-Il ciclo dell'anno a Inis Mòr-Arainn. Credenze e tradizioni del calendario presso la comunità delle isole Arann (Irlanda)Among the peoples living on the Arann Islands (western Ireland) ancient folk customs are still alive and practised. Starting from a school manuscript written in 1938 by Càit Ni Briain, a young local schoolgirl, I investigated, on the place, the traditional calendar of the islanders from both astronomical and ethnographical points of view. Such peculiar calendrical system, that is in use from several centuries, splits the year into two well definite segments: the bright season and the dark one; the latter, corresponding to the winter season, starts at the Oìche Shamhna festival (October 31th) and closes at the celebration of the following feast of St. Patrick at March 17 th . In this day the bright segment of the year starts and goes until the following Oìche Shamhna festival. In fact the summer time (the bright segment) is about 7- months long and the winter time (dark segment) is 5-months only. Such splitting is based on the local climatic changes and is phased according to the precristian splitting of the year based on the alternance of the feasts of Samain and Bealtaine, the first corresponding on the ground of the Arann Islands to the Oìche Shamhna festival. The development of the year makes provision for a number of feasts based on the worship of the saints, so the summer solstice is coupled with the feast of St. John, the winter solstice is coupled with Christmas and the spring equinox is coupled with the St. Patrick day. The calendrical system of the Aran Islands couples two time reckoning schemes: the Christian one based on the worship of the saints and the oldest pagan one based on the four traditional Irish celtic feasts after their “solarization” operated by mediaeval monks in order to agree the pagan computus with the Julian calendar required by the Church.
Codebò, MarioDe Santis, Henry - Pesce, Giovanni Luca A.L'osservatorio in pietra di Bric Pianarella (Savona)In the region of Finale Ligure (Savona, Italy) a crumbling stone was found, a construction in which two stones mark the local meridian and another nearby stone with a natural hole that marks the aequinoctial sunrising. The age of the stone construction is unknown, but its function as a rough astronomical observatory is clear.
Calzolari, Enrico-Ricerche di paleoastronomia nel sito archeologico di Lagorara in Val di Vara-La Spezia (3600 a.C.-2000 a.C.)-
Frison, Carlo-La determinazione dell'asse del mondo con il lituo presso gli EtruschiThe lituus was an Etruscan astronomical instrument exclusively employed to determine the direction of north pole, which was necessary to get the divination. The religious meaning and practical use of the other astronomical orientations also are discussed.
Motta, SilviaGaspani, AdrianoCalakmul (Mexico): geometria, struttura e orientamenti astronomici del sito con nuovi datiIt has recently become understood that Calakmul, whose ruins are located in the high forests of the southern Campeche region, was one of the greatest empires in the Mayan world; in 2002 Calakmul was added to UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites. The original aim of the present work was to investigate a possible use of the 'E - Structure' in order to mark the rising points of the moon at the standstills. In particular the moon was collimated towards the corner of the structure IV. In fact the rising moon at the major standstill (δ = +ε+ι) was seen towards the extreme northern corner of the structure IV (sect. a). The rising moon at the intermediate upper standstill (δ = +ε−ι) was seen at the meridional corner of the section a of the structure IV. Similarly at the extreme southern lunar standstill (δ = −ε−ι) the moon was seen at the meridional corner of the top of the section c of the structure IV. Finally the rising moon at the intermediate minor standstill (δ = −ε+ι) was seen towards the northern corner of the segment c of the structure IV.
Gregori, Giovanni P.-La concezione dell'interno della Terra. 'Miti' antichi ieri e oggiMolte fra le odierne interpretazioni dei fenomeni che si presume avvengano nelle profondità della Terra sono in grande misura derivate da un qualche “mito” che sopravvive sin dagli albori della conoscenza umana. Una attenta riconsiderazione critica delle radici prime della nostra eredità culturale ci può consentire di distinguere fra ciò che è oggettivamente suffragato dalle osservazioni, e quanto andrebbe invece riconsiderato, migliorato, o se necessario rigettato, applicando quando e dove possibile il rasoio di Ockham. Ciò riguarda molte fra le idee correnti accreditate e che riguardano l’interno della Terra, i processi geodinamici, ed i meccanismi che presiedono al vulcanismo, e più in generale l’intero dominio delle scienze della Terra, che in effetti è una piccola parte del sistema fisico che compone con il Sole. Né il problema è meramente accademico, come ricordano le catastrofi naturali. Diversi tali schemi interpretativi possono venire considerati come sospetti di possibili fraintendimenti o deviazioni dalle mere evidenze strettamente osservazionali. Lo studio della storia della nascita e sviluppo delle concezioni scientifiche nel corso dei millenni è sicuramente di grandissimo aiuto proprio per il progresso della scienza odierna.
Polcaro, Vito FrancescoAntonello, ElioPresentazione [del volume]-
Sciortino, IdaLabianca, LucillaOsservazioni sulla basilica sotterranea di Porta Maggiore in RomaSubito fuori l’odierna Porta Maggiore, punto di convergenza del più importante gruppo di acquedotti della Roma imperiale (Aniene vetere, Aniene nuovo, Marcia, Tepula, Giulia e Claudia), si nasconde, al di sotto di oltre 10 metri dal livello dell’attuale via Prenestina, l’interessantissimo complesso monumentale, riportato alla luce casualmente, in seguito ad un cedimento del terreno lungo la linea ferroviaria Roma-Cassino il 23 aprile del 1917. [incipit]
Nigro, Lorenzo-L'orientamento astrale del Tempio del Kothon di MoziaLe rinnovate indagini intraprese dalla Missione archeologica a Mozia dell’Università di Roma 'La Sapienza' a partire dall’anno 2002 hanno condotto all’identificazione e, progressivamente negli anni, all’esplorazione di un tempio di notevoli dimensioni connesso al bacino artificiale detto Kothon 1 , il monumento che contraddistingue il quadrante sud-occidentale dell’isola di Mozia, l’antica colonia fenicia fondata nello Stagnone di Marsala, sulla cuspide occidentale della Sicilia. [incipit]
Moscati, Paola-Archeoastronomia: metodi e strumentiNell’analizzare alcuni aspetti metodologici e tecnici che accomunano e distinguono le due discipline che s’incontrano e si fondono nell’archeoastronomia, si nota che nel panorama nazionale questo settore ha avuto un sensibile sviluppo nell’arco di poco più di un quinquennio. E ciò grazie sicuramente all’opera della Società Italiana di Archeoastronomia e alla presenza di nuovi strumenti bibliografici che consentono oggi di seguire in modo sistematico l’evoluzione degli studi archeoastronomici. [incipit]
Polcaro, AndreaPolcaro, Vito FrancescoThe orientation of the Rujm el-Hiri Southeast GateRujm el-Hiri, una straordinaria struttura megalitica posta al centro del Basso Golan, mostra due fasi di costruzione e di uso: nel Bronzo Antico I (3300-3000 a.C.), fu realizzato l’imponente complesso cerimoniale a pianta circolare, costituito da diversi muri concentrici congiunti da setti radiali; nella seconda fase di utilizzo, nel Bronzo Tardo (1550-1200 a.C.), al suo centro fu costruito un tumulo funerario. Il monumento mostra due entrate monumentali, l’una in direzione NE e l’altra SE ed una coppia di macigni colossali (2 x 2.5 m) posti sul muro più esterno, in direzione Est rispetto al centro geometrico del complesso. L’ingresso in direzione NE è allineato con notevole precisione verso la direzione dell’alba al solstizio d’estate alla metà del IV Millennio a.C., mentre i macigni posti ad Est formano tra loro una tacca di mira che, dal centro del complesso identifica, a meno di 1.5° e quindi con una precisione temporale di soli tre o quattro giorni (a seconda della data considerata), la direzione dell’alba agli equinozi. Sulla base di queste misure e dell’analisi dell’ecologia della regione, Aveni & Mizrachi (1998) hanno ipotizzato che il complesso di Rujm el-Hiri fosse sostanzialmente destinato ad un ruolo calendariale nell’ambito delle necessità agricole e della visione cosmologica delle culture locali. In particolare, questi autori ipotizzano che l’ingresso di NE fosse usato per processioni rituali in occasione delle feste dedicate al dio Dumuzi in occasione del solstizio d’estate, note in contesto mesopotamico ma molto probabilmente connesse con tradizioni provenienti da popoli occidentali. Molto più problematico in questa ottica risulta interpretare l’orientamento dell’ingresso a SE. Infatti, il suo orientamento, misurato da Aveni & Mizrachi (1998) risulta essere pari a 151°51’, e quindi ad oltre 20° dalla direzione dell’alba al solstizio d’inverno. La spiegazione dell’insolito orientamento della Porta SE di Rujm el-Hiri ci è stata fornita dai risultati di una survey degli orientamenti dei dolmen del Bronzo Antico IA situati nella Valle dello Wadi az-Zarqa, in Giordania (Polcaro & Polcaro, 2006), nel corso della quale si è riscontrato che i dolmen del campione sono prevalentemente orientati secondo il meridiano, mentre un numero più piccolo, ma statisticamente significativo è orientato intorno a 152°. Questa distribuzione è stata da noi interpretata in base a considerazioni astronomiche ed archeologiche come una testimonianza dei complessi riti di sepoltura secondaria in occasione di festività svolte durante il solstizio d’inverno e connesse con il mito di Dumuzi. La direzione a 152° rappresenta in particolare l’azimut della costellazione di Orione, quando l’eroe che in essa è rappresentato sembra “alzarsi in piedi”. Lo stesso azimut di 152° si ripete nella porta a SE del complesso di Rujm el-Hiri. Possiamo quindi supporre che questa porta avesse un ruolo in cerimonie in occasione del solstizio d’inverno, così come quella a NE veniva usata per le cerimonie in occasione del solstizio d’estate dedicate a Dumuzi, o ad un dio in qualche modo equivalente e comunque associato con Orione. Questa scoperta permette di interpretare tutti gli orientamenti principali del complesso di Rujm el-Hiri in un unico quadro, rafforzando ulteriormente le conclusioni di Aveni e Mizrachi (1998) sul ruolo cultuale e calendariale del monumento.
Ranieri, Marcello-La geometria pitagorica della tomba a tholos del tesoro di Atreo di MiceneLe nove tombe a Tholos di Micene costituiscono un gruppo omogeneo sia per collocazione (tutte si trovano sul lato occidentale, vicino alla cittadella di Micene), sia rispetto al loro uso (funerario), sia per la tipologia architettonica (cupola a falsa volta e accesso da dromos attraverso uno stomion), sia pure per la loro collocazione temporale: sono state infatti tutte costruite nel periodo relativamente breve di due secoli, all’incirca dal 1525 al 1300/1225 a.C. (Wace 1949). Per la storia dell'architettura, la Tholos del Tesoro di Atreo rappresenta l'archetipo delle grandi cupole a volta a sbalzo ed è stata la più grande cupola dell'antichità, prima della realizzazione, 1500 anni più tardi, del Pantheon di Roma (1 sec. d.C.). [incipit]
Dallaporta, AnnamariaMarcato, LucioIpotesi sulla fondazione e sulla forma dell'insediamento di Drupad Kila (U.P.-India)The regular planimetric figure of the ancient settlement of Drupad Kila gave it particular importance and significance, thus contributing to making it a symbol of the re-establishment of the kingdom of Panchala (50 BC - 100 AD). It would appear that the number 9 (number of Agni) was at the basis of the measurements of the urban area, the sides of which expressed the ratio of 5/4 which was believed to represent great stability. The direction of the planimetric rectangle was the east, governed by Indra (abundance, fertility), identifiable with Surya (like Agni). It is therefore possible that the town and the new kingdom originated under his protection. For this reason we have hypothesised that Drupad Kila was founded at the time of the summer solstice (when Indra was celebrated) in a year of the first century BC. In the night of the summer solstice of 64 BC, to the east the constellation of Bhadrapada or Proshthapada/Pegasus (similar to a rectangle) could be seen, the names of which indicated stability as an appropriate quality for the settlement (coincidence with 5/4). Before dawn Bhadrapada was above the site and to the east Shukra/Venus and Rohini/Aldebaran appeared side by side, two celestial bodies with significance linked to abundance (like Indra). The year 64 BC confirms the numismatic studies which indicated 65 BC as the beginning of the period in which Panchala regained its independence under King Dhruvamitra (Dhruva=stable). For the new (royal?) city of Drupad Kila and for the entire territory of Panchala, the auspices therefore pointed to a future of stability and prosperity.
Verderame, Lorenzo-I rapporti tra architettura e corpi celesti nell'antica Mesopotamia-
Ranieri, Marcello-Contenuti geometrici, metrici e calendariali delle strutture architettoniche preispaniche mesoamericaneQuesta ricerca è parte di una più ampia indagine sulla geometria arcaica, che si avvale del confronto tra forme geometriche desunte da concreti presupposti teorici e quelle riconoscibili dalle analisi effettuate con strumenti di grafica computerizzata (CAD) sulle planimetrie delle strutture architettoniche dell’archeologia. L’odierna versatilità ed efficacia degli strumenti CAD e di calcolo rende possibile tale confronto. Quando la qualità dei rilievi grafici assicura un buon grado di affidabilità, l’analisi permette la stima in termini matematici probabilistici della verosimiglianza delle ipotesi fatte restituendo affidabili e quantitative informazioni di tipo geometrico (forme), numerico (numeri impiegati per ottenerle) e metrico (unità di lunghezza impiegata). [incipit]
Gaspani, Adriano-Criteri di orientazione astronomica nelle strutture fortificate dell'Irlanda altomedievaleThe so called 'ringforts' are the most common archaeological structures in Ireland. 'Ringforts' were constructed mainly between the fourth and the ninth century A.D. and are consisting of a roughly circular space surrounded by a bank and outer fosse or simply a rampart of stone. The entrance are usually in the south-east portion of the local horizon regardless of the aspect of the site. In this work I analysed the orientation of the axis of the entrances for about 10000 'ringforts' spread across the entire Ireland in order to test the hypothesis of the astronomical orientation of them. The results showed a consistent tendency towards the direction of the sunrise at the winter solstice as well as the sunrise at the traditional historical feasts of 'Samain' and 'Imbolc'. Possible connection with the points of rising of some bright stars as Antares, Sirius and the Orion Belt is possible and cannot be discarded.
Codebò, MarioDe Santis, HenryArcheoastronomia Ligustica: bilancio di venti anni di ricercheArcheoastronomia Ligustica è un centro di ricerca nato nel 2001 dalla collaborazione, già peraltro avviata negli anni precedenti, di Mario Codebò ed Henry De Santis, studiosi genovesi del settore. In particolare Mario Codebò effettua studi relativi alla disciplina fin dal 1987. Le attività scientifiche poste in essere finora hanno riguardato: 1. la misura degli orientamenti di monumenti megalitici; 2. la segnalazione e lo studio di incisioni rupestri; 3. la misura degli orientamenti di edifici religiosi; 4. la misura di edifici e necropoli di età classica; 5. l’etnoastronomia, o astronomia culturale mediante il censimento e lo studio delle montagne “meridiane” o indicatrici delle ore del giorno; 6. lo studio delle conoscenze astronomiche nei testi biblici e religiosi dell’antichità; 7. la redazione di articoli divulgativi sulla disciplina; 8. la formazione professionale a favore degli operatori dei BB.CC. [incipit]
Berti, SergioCalzolari, Enrico - Marchi, SimonePenetrazione della luce del Sole al tramonto del solstizio d'inverno ed al tramonto equinoziale in una struttura a 'tholos' del promontorio del Caprione (Lerici, La Spezia)Many stone constructions, named 'cavanei' (Celtic etymology by 'cabhan', a hollow place) and similar to the Greek 'tholoi', are found in the Caprione promontory (Eastern Liguria). In a site named Debbio (ancient ligurian etymology by debelus, “I clean the field by fire”) one of these structures is entered by the Sun light at the Winter Solstice and also at the equinox. At the Winter Solstice the Sun light enters the chamber through the roof-box positioned upon the door and illuminates the niche positioned in the opposite wall. At the equinox the Sun light enters tangential the door-posts and illuminates the opposite angle, forming a peculiar figure.
Bianchi, EttoreCodebò, Mario - Veneziano, GiuseppeTempo della creazione e ciclo precessionale nella BibbiaIn this collective paper we regard two very different chronological schemes implied in the Old Testament. At first, the well-known Masoretic Text 1 , written in Hebrew, represented the religious events of the Jews as if the Creation of the World dated from about 4000 BC. Instead the later version of the Bible, so called Septuaginta, went back to 5500 BC in order to set the Origins of Mankind. Such a difference of views is a complex question to understand. In our opinion both of the sides arranged their narrative subject according to large spans of time, whose length was mainly deduced from the phenomenon known as the precession of equinoxes. Indeed, if one assumes that the vernal point γ started its movement through the signs of the Zodiac when it was in the constellation of Taurus, it follows that, some thousands years after, the Sun at the spring equinox crossed the Aries and next began to be outlined in Pisces. The authors of the Masoretic Bible obtained a period over 4000 years because they used a rate of precession defined with high accuracy, around 50" per annum: a value that really occurs. On the other hand the Seventy Translators, who described a longer course of the same Holy History, guessed that the heavenly vault was receding slowly, at a little more than 36” p.a.; obviously they choose an erroneous measure, but one ready for prevalence in the circle of Hellenistic scientists. In the end, we suggest that Jewish astronomical culture, sometimes wrongly defamed, reached a good level, perhaps having taken advantage of previous results performed by Chaldeans and Egyptians; anyway before the appearance of Hipparchus from Nicea (190-120 BC).
Magini, Leonardo-Le feste romane dei solstizi: 'Fors Fortuna' e 'Saturnalia'In the Roman calendar the feast of the moon-goddess Fors Fortuna - June 24/26 - falls on the summer solstice and the Saturnalia feast - December 17/23 - on the winter solstice. During the first feast the Sun is in Cancer, that is in the Moon domicile, and the souls descend on Earth; during the second feast the Sun is in Capricorn, that is in the Saturn domicile, and the souls reascend to Heaven.
Laurencich-Minelli, LauraMagli, GiulioGlimpses into the Inca astronomy from a Jesuit document of the early 17th centuryThe Miccinelli manuscripts are a set of documents written in Peru by Jesuit scholars during the first half of the 17th century. One of such documents contains the depiction of a Quipu. The drawing is claimed by the author, Blas Valera, to be a reproduction of the Inca calendar of the year of the end of the Inca empire. We give here a complete archaeoastronomical analysis of this document, showing that its calendrical information is actually quite accurate. The possible relevance of these results for the knowledge of the original Inca lore of the sky is discussed in full details.
Ienna, Domenico-Quel cane di Sirio: una stella su Roma antica. Antropologia astronomica nella poesia e nella trattatistica latinaIl presente contributo d’antropologia astronomica - procedendo all’analisi e alla comparazione di tradizioni mitologiche, resoconti osservativi, ritualità e calendarizzazioni tratti da numerose opere diverse per tipologia della letteratura latina (con opportuni rimandi ad atre culture) - si propone d’indagare le supposte funzioni pratiche e quelle simboliche svolte dalla stella Sirio e dal suo asterismo nel mondo romano, riguardo a tematiche di maggiore interesse in ambito appunto astronomico (appellativi, luminosità e colore, funzione cosmologica e calore).
Brescia, Teodoro-XP, SATOR e le radici ebraiche del cristianesimo. La simbologia olistica e l'astronomia culturaleIn previous works it has been stated that many ancient Christian symbols were cryptic forms of Hebrew symbols, some with evident references to astronomy. New researches, today, lead to assert that: (1) the early Christian symbols were modified and explicit forms of Hebrew symbols, some of them astronomical, used by early Christians respectively in order to: a) reveal the real meaning of Hebrew traditions and symbols (that is the similarity with those of far east religions); b) distinguish Christianity from Hebrew; (2) the early Christians used of course stylized forms of their symbols. Moreover they used cryptic forms, during the Roman persecution period (second half of I c. BC - beginning of IV c. AC); (3) After the persecutions (lasted about 250 years), Christian Church lost or abandoned the original meanings of those forms and so it began: a) to use stylized, cryptic and original forms all together; b) often to transform also them and their meaning; c) to maintain only their ritual and decorative use (therefore reducing its symbols to simple signs); (4) 'XP' and 'Sator' (and other early Christian symbols) seem to be stylized or cryptic forms of the 'Hebrew Star'. At last, this new decoding mode of Christian symbols connect Christianity with Hebrew, Taoism, etc. because it seems to rediscover a real ancient root of religions (that someone called Primordial Tradition or Original Holism 2 ); therefore it could give birth to a new “ethical” way also, in the sense of rational and universal (so transcultural) way, for the dialogue among religions.
Lanciano, Nicoletta-I luoghi dell'astronomia in città: Roma e Praga, due capitali sullo stesso meridianoLe due città di Roma e di Praga si trovano a latitudini diverse ma quasi sullo stesso meridiano: ne viene proposta una lettura dal punto di vista della storia dell’astronomia e in base ad alcune tracce visibili o più nascoste di questa storia. Nelle due città, hanno avuto grande influenza i Gesuiti con i loro Collegi e i loro Osservatori. Sono due capitali e due culle della cultura scientifica ed artistica europea: quali tracce di tutto ciò? Vengono proposti inoltre dei confronti e delle similitudini a partire dalle forme delle “mappe” delle città, entrambe attraversate da un fiume. Vengono presi in considerazione particolari orologi solari, alcune meridiane monumentali, la storia degli Osservatori e le tracce di astronomi che le hanno abitate nello stesso periodo quali Galilei, a Roma, e Keplero, a Praga. Con questo lavoro si presenta un possibile modo di esplorare un territorio anche con uno «sguardo scientifico»: ciò costituisce una base per aiutare a leggere la storia, il territorio, alcuni aspetti legati alla scienza nella società, senza avere le barriere tipiche delle discipline, ma utilizzandone diverse e servendosi degli apporti specifici di discipline quali la geometria, l’astronomia, la storia e la storia delle scienze e del pensiero.
Incerti, Manuela-La dodicesima parte del cielo a SchifanoiaL’astronomia e l’astrologia alla corte di Ferrara durante i governi di Lionello, Borso ed Ercole ricoprirono un ruolo di grande rilievo, così come per altre corti rinascimentali italiane, condizione largamente indagata in diversi studi specialistici. Allo sviluppo di questi aspetti della cultura ferrarese hanno fortemente contribuito le indagini, soprattutto di tipo iconografico, sviluppate sul Salone dei Mesi di Schifanoia (1469-70) e sui suoi probabili autori. [incipit]
Lupato, Giovanni-Note sulla datazione della SN1054 dalle fonti orientaliIn questa relazione si analizza la datazione della SN 1054 riportata da due fonti orientali. Questa stessa datazione è forse importante anche nello studio delle testimonianze dirette o indirette di fonte europea dello stesso fenomeno celeste. Negli ultimi decenni sono state infatti pubblicate varie ipotesi su tali osservazioni occidentali, e ora si osserva, pur senza entrare nel merito delle stesse, che anticipano tutte la datazione cinese del 4 luglio 1054. Si tratta di una registrazione cinese ripresa dal Sung-shi, trattato astronomico della “Storia della dinastia Sung” compilato attorno al ‘300 e che riprende osservazioni effettuate dalla città di Kaifeng; e di una fonte giapponese, il Meigetsuki “Diario della Luna piena” opera del 13° secolo del poeta cortigiano Fujiwara, conservata presso il National Museum di Kyoto. Notiamo allora che ambedue le registrazioni ricopiano i dati originali circa due secoli dopo. Data la necessaria brevità della relazione in essere ci limiteremo a cogliere di queste due registrazioni solamente gli elementi utili per la datazione. [incipit]
Berardo, MariangelaLanciano, NicolettaIpotesi e considerazioni circa la geografia sottostante i due orologi catottrici del XVII secolo realizzati a Roma dal MaignanI due oggetti del nostro studio sono i due orologi catottrici realizzati da Padre Emmanuel Maignan a Roma nel Convento della Santissima Trinità dei Monti nel 1637 e a Palazzo Spada nel 1644. Scopo del presente lavoro è mettere in evidenza che entrambi, pur essendo due orologi solari ricchissimi di informazioni e molto precisi per diversi aspetti, presentano alcuni 'errori' e 'imprecisioni' rispetto alla geografia che viene indicata sui loro quadranti.
Castaldi, Francesco-La precisione di Galileo sulle distanze dei satelliti mediceiGalileo never described the device he used to measure distance of Jupiter from its satellites by means of his telescope; nevertheless the results he obtained were remarkably precise when compared with a planetarium computer code and taking into account his operating conditions. This progress took place in the years following 1610 (date of the publication of 'Sidereus Nuncius'), but became well-known only with the compilation of Galileo’s complete works in the National Edition of 'Le Opere' (1890-1909). This article discusses the measuring unit used in 'Nuncius' to define the distances and the only description of the Galilean device given by A. Borelli in his work of 1666.
Banfi, Vittorio-La forma della Terra nei 'Principia' di NewtonIl problema della forma delle Terra e degli altri pianeti è affrontato da Newton nel terzo libro dei 'Principia', in particolare nella Proposizione XVIII, Teorema XVI. Nella Proposizione successiva viene sviluppato un ragionamento, basato su un modello interpretativo semplice e geniale, dal quale scaturisce che la forma è uno sferoide di rotazione e si fornisce anche una stima per l’entità dello schiacciamento ai poli. Afferma I. Newton '...Il diametro della Terra all’equatore sta al diametro della Terra attraverso ai poli come 230 a 229'. Lo schiacciamento è valutato pari a 1/230; oggi ben sappiamo che l’effettivo valore è 1/294 , assai più piccolo di quello predetto da Newton. Questa discrepanza è dovuta principalmente al fatto che la Terra non è omogenea. In questa nota si constata che tale risultato Newtoniano concorda con quello dedotto da un modello matematico assai più completo, proposto da Maclaurin.
Frau, Sergio-Il 'Far West' dei Greci: tutto vero? Tutto vero!-
Bertola, Francesco-Presentazione [del volume]-
Incerti, Manuela-Introduzione-
Incerti, Manuela-Prefazione. L'architettura e il cosmo nelle fonti-
Sidorenko-Dolum, Anna-UNESCO Thematic Initiative. Astronomy and World Heritage-
Rizzo, Silvana-Commissione nazionale UNESCO per l'Italia. Gruppo di progetto 'Cultura immateriale e diversità'. Convenzione per la protezione e la promozione delle espressioni della diversità culturale. Estratto del piano di attuazione-
Mandelli, Emma-Architettura, 'segno' dell'universo?-
Arnaldi, Mario-'Opus Dei Project'. Orologi solari medioevali italiani. Un archivio per lo studio e la tutela del patrimonio gnomonico medioevale in ItaliaThe primitive sundials engraved on the Romanesque churches showed the time throughout the Middle Ages. Nevertheless the study of European medieval gnomonics is still not very popular, not even among the historians of the science. The main reason is certainly the scarce use of mathematics. Is it really fair to forget a gnomonic culture that lasted so long and spread so much? 'Opus Dei Project' (ODP) is the name of the National Archive exclusively dedicated to the Italian Medieval Sundials. It was started in 1998 by the author of this lecture and is shortly to be published. The ODP Archive was born from the need to have a real catalogue of Italian medieval sundials and today it includes almost 200 report files and is going to fill an historical, gnomonic, and editorial lack of records for our Country. Besides wanting to give back the deserved historical-gnomonic dignity to the medieval sundials and to aspire to be a base of study for the gnomonics of the Middle Ages, the principal purpose of ODP is also to be able to become a point of reference for the authority in charge of the protection and the maintenance of our Italian heritage.
Bartoli, Maria Teresa-'In forma dunque di candida rosa'. Un disegno gotico per FirenzeAt the end of the 'Divina Commedia', Dante comes into 'Empireo' (the heavenly Jerusalem), the city of Angels and Blessed People, in the form of a circular place, a kind of amphitheatre. The metaphor of the rose explains the symbolic meaning of the city layout. Such an idea of town design is not testified in Gothic West Europe. A discussion about circular themes appears in a Medieval Treatise of Mathematics written by Paolo Dell’Abbaco, contemporary of Dante. He gives the rule for doubling, tripling, quadrupling the area of a given circle. The eighteenth century map of Florence, analysed with a metric ruler, reveals that the great Gothic Monasteries are so placed that the churches façades are on the border of concentric circles, drawn so that each circular crown in sequence has the same area of the inner circle, that includes the ancient town. In 1265, Pope Clemente IV issued a bull in which he established that, in favour of the Minors order, other urban religious Orders could not build inside a circle of 300 canne (= m 597) around the church of the Minors Order. The meaning of the bull is probably at the origin of the urban layout of religious buildings in Florence.
Bertalotti, PaoloDe Bernardi, Mauro Luca - Alcolea, Izabel - Bonora, Maria ChiaraGeometrie per il disegno della terra e del cielo«Why every project has been built on geometrical basis? It is not sufficient to say that geometry, measure, etc. help the designer to convey to the builder a rule for realization. The analysis of some forms introduces doubts that something more may exist; why bring all to unity, why establish a code for reading architecture so effective as to be rediscovered and reread in the same way after many centuries? In the code there is all sense of the ancient artist, who fitted into his historical period reinterpreting rules, aesthetic and stylistic canons, but with continuous fear to be forgotten. There is the fear of man to be abandoned into oblivion, to be not part of history. There is a problem of communication, not only transversal (communicate a thought that must be realized) but also vertical (communicate in time a thought that goes beyond different cultures and that can be interpreted and deciphered through the chosen code). If the code is geometry (built with known tools, proportions, relations, etc.) the code is universal and recoverable».
Borgherini, MalvinaGarbin, EmanueleRappresentazione e comunicazione del Palazzo della Ragione di Padova e del suo ciclo astrologicoEight centuries of the history of art and of Padua’s scientific and technological culture deposited on the stones and frescoes of its Palace of Law (Palazzo della Ragione) make this great work of urban architecture a part of the city’s collective identity. This “palimpsest”, legible only to a restricted circle of specialists, should be accessible to a vaster public interested in understanding this object symbol of local culture. The project planned for exhibition in this first phase of development is a series of digital models, employing tomographic-endoscopic visualizations and multiresolution images, for interactive exploration on the web. The various models devised allow the visitor to superimpose the Palace’s current conditions on the various transformations undergone over the centuries. Similarly, comparisons can be made between the astrological fresco cycle with maps of the heavens, cosmological hypotheses, ancient and contemporary astrological treatises, and the related exchange of knowledge between the Orient and the Occident.
Candito, Cristina-Gnomonica e architettura a Roma nel XVII secoloIn 1653 Francesco Borromini created the perspective colonnade of palazzo Spada, in Rome, where father Emmanuel Maignan had built, few years before, a sundial based on the law of reflection. The paintings of both the arcade by Francesco Borromini and the Spada sundial were made by the same artist, Giovanni Battista Magni. The committee Cardinal Bernardino Spada, who was interested in Architecture and the extravagant and theatrical aspects of the arts linked to Optics and Geometry, significantly influenced the two works. However, the most important relation between the two works is the optic-geometric link, which is still perfectly readable, demonstrating the purpose which originated it. The Spada sundial dates back to 1644, after that Maignan had already tried out this kind of complicated reflecting dials in France and Rome, at the College of Trinità dei Monti. In the same period, the famous Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher had been built a catoptric sundial in Avignon (1632), competing for the primacy of the invention with Maignan. These sundials differ one another, but work in the same way, utilising the effects of the light reflections rather than the shadow of a gnomon. Besides, it is interesting to find that such a particular subject as the catoptric gnomonics had been already dealt in a text by the mathematician Raphael Mirami, in 1582. Perhaps this is the origin of the peculiar idea of binding the sky to the architecture through the reflected light of the stars.
Cinque, Giuseppina EnricaLazzeri, ElisabettaRoccabruna: un'architettura adrianea a immagine del cieloDuring the centuries the evolution of the knowledges in the astronomic field was accompanied by a great refinement in the representation of the celestial vault. Equally, while astronomic science increased its competences, the tools used for the study of stars became so refined and valuable structures to be considered works of art; from the simple disk of Nebra (1600 B.C.), probably the most ancient representation of the celestial vault, that according to some archaeologists was built to be also use as a portable “astronomic calendar”, to the refined armillary spheres (or spherical astrolabes) in use since the times of Eratostene (III century B.C.) for the calculation of the azimuthal coordinates of a star. The armillary spheres could be also extremely complexes objects, as it is learned by the description that Cicero does of the celestial globe and of the planetarium, perhaps endowed with mechanisms to simulate the movement of the celestial bodies, built by Archimede, and that the Roman consul Marcello brought to Rome after the conquest of Syracuse in 212 B.C.; the Latin historian specifies that one of the two spheres, put by Marcello in the Temple of the Virtue, had on its surface the representation of the stars and the constellations, while the other, that the consul held for itself, was a bronzy planetarium. In general astrology had alternate fortunes, during the Roman empire, and it was not unusual that the imperial court welcomed some experienced astrologers; Tiberio for instance used Trasillus’ services and suggestions, while Claudio was friend and protector of the famous astrologer Tiberio Claudio Balbillus, who, afterwards, lent his services at the court of Nerone. Probably the astrologer was ancestor of Julia Balbilla, poetess at the Adrian court; in fact it is read in a registration, that a certain Balbillus, probably of siriana origin, was among the progenitors of Julia Balbilla. It doesn’t amaze that Adriano, endowed with an extraordinarily eclectic intellect, lover of every science, and particularly fond of astrology so much to be considered a good astrologer, able to calculate his own horoscope, decides to set an armillary sphere, a mechanical artifice among the most refined of that time in his villa tiburtina, in the building known today with the name of Roccabruna. To motivate the realization of a suggestive architecture such as that of Roccabruna, it needs to recognized to Adriano a passion for the astral studies of the phenomena; this would motivate the realization, inside his villa, of a place that could serve to such studies, and at the same time could result as a commemorative architecture of sky’s beauties. It is in the central room of the building that, through a system of ropes, the structure of an armillary sphere was positioned, in such way to seem suspended in the vacuum below the dome, whose decoration probably reproduced a starry sky. This building was not built to follow particular astronomic alignments, as reported sometimes in the literature, but it is rather built to be an image of the sky; the dome, representation of the celestial vaul, is the artificial scenery for the suspended sphere in the vacuum between sky and earth, which represents the tool through which man approaches himself to the celestial mysteries and projects them on the terrestrial plane, architecturally represented by the surface of the floor, whose decoration is produced by a stereographic projection of the armillary sphere on the Equator’s plane, assuming as a point of view one of the Poles.
De Rosa, Agostino-Where the Earth meets the sky: the 'Roden Crater project' by James TurrellIl 'Roden Crater project', situato in un remoto angolo nel Painted Desert (Arizona) è un land-formed work al quale l’artista statunitense James Turrell (Los Angeles, 1943) lavora da più di trent’anni. L’intento del progettista è quello di trasformare un cono di ceneri estinto, generato da secoli di attività geologica, in un’opera d’arte a scala paesaggistica capace di intessere, per mezzo della luce, declinata in tutte le sue possibili manifestazioni fisiche e metafisiche, un fitto dialogo con l’ambiente naturale che la circonda, sia a quota terrestre che celeste. Per la progettazione vera e propria, Turrell si è avvalso della collaborazione di architetti ed ingegneri, che hanno garantito il rispetto di elevati standard esecutivi e normativi, mentre, per quanto riguarda l’orientazione cardinale e siderale dei singoli spazi, dell’aiuto di astronomi. Pur essendo monumentale nelle dimensioni e inedito nella concezione, il 'Roden Crater project' non nasce per commemorare eventi o ricorrenze storiche, ma vuole essere una sorta di tempio in cui si celebra la percezione umana nella unicità della sua esperienza: l’individuo che godrà del privilegio di entrare nel corpo sotterraneo del cratere, avrà modo di ridefinire non solo il proprio modo di percepire i fenomeni naturali, ma anche di commisurasi con la scala degli eventi celesti, in una perfetta e risonante corrispondenza tra micro- e macro-cosmo. Il 'Roden Crater project' è dunque la sintesi di anni di intenso lavoro per James Turrell, anzi di un’intera vita: qui infatti lo scopo manifesto dell’artista è quello di usufruire delle ricerche e delle idee che hanno ispirato le sue installazioni precedenti, proiettandole a scala paesaggistica in modo da poter godere delle qualità psico-percettive associabili alla luce naturale, diurna e notturna, e al moto apparente o reale dei corpi celesti. La luce, vero cardine dell’intero progetto, penetrerà all’interno della superficie del cratere attraverso aperture e gallerie, opportunamente orientate e quasi invisibili dall’esterno: i vani sotterranei funzioneranno come mantici luminosi e camere oscure, gli specchi d’acqua ipetrali agiranno come lenti che magnificheranno gli effetti di riflessione della luce desertica, ed i lunghi tunnel come condotti ottici che decanteranno le immagini del Sole e della Luna, in particolari giorni dell’anno. La forma degli ambienti, che configurano l’intero progetto, non è determinata da principi estetici, bensì dalla loro funzione principale: quella di accogliere, dirigere e conservare la luce.
Incerti, Manuela-La dodicesima parte del cielo: da Schifanoia alla 'Ferrariae novae restauratio'Starting from the studies of Warburg, it has been demonstrated in the painting program the presence of a precise line of the historical astrology. Belonging to this are the 'Astronomicon' of Manlio and the magic medieval and 'Picatrix'’s renaissance tradition. In this part, great importance is attributed to the constellations and to their mythical images, visual representation and splendor. The tolemaica astrology, however, has an empirical nature, instead utilizes strictly mathematical methodologies. The Tolomeo zodiac is a circular corona, a geometric construction and not a real constellation band. The study confirms the importance of the calculation of the horoscope of duke Borso d’Este for the Schifanoia Palace, and the horoscope of the foundation for the 'Ferrariae novae restauratio' (Luca Gaurico 1552, August 29 th 1492 Julian Calendar).
Lanciano, NicolettaBellucci, EmanuelePadre Maignan e l'orologio catottrico di Trinità dei Monti. Identificazione delle località ordinate per latitudine presenti nel quadranteThe work concerns the identification of the geographic places marked on the solar catoptrical clock present in Trinità dei Monti and realized by priest Emmanuel Maignan, in Rome. The places on the quadrant are located through the use of a geographic coordinate, the latitude or the longitude. The locations are given, sorted by longitude, to the east and to the west of the Local Meridian of Rome, and by latitude (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn). In particular this study concerns only locations ordered in latitude, and seeks to verify the geographical accuracy with which was made the work by Maignan and which may have been its sources. We identify the places present on the quadrant, and, using 'Google Earth', we identify the current coordinates. The result will then be compared with those identified by means of antiques maps, drawn by contemporary cartographers of Maignan and with those referred on the same Maignan’s work, which is moreover explicitly referenced to Ptolemy’s 'Geography'. This paper presents some problems founded in the identification of places. On the quadrant and on the antiques maps we found a difficulty respectively for the identification and the search. In order to determine with greater precision the latitudes of the places on the solar clock, these have been measured on the site using the instrument called “triangle of the signs”, used by Maignan for the trace of diurnal curves.
Magli, Giulio-Archaeoastronomy and landscape archaeology as clues for a new interpretation of Machu PicchuMachu Picchu, la enigmatica città costruita dagli Incas circa 80 Km a nord-ovest della capitale, Cusco, è attualmente interpretata come una "Tenuta Reale" del sovrano Inca Pachacuti. Questa idea è fortemente criticata qui tramite un riesame delle fonti esistenti e una nuova valutazione delle prove, come l'urbanistica, la posizione della città rispetto al paesaggio sacro e l'archeoastronomia. In questo modo si rivela una chiara somiglianza tra Machu Picchu e il centro di pellegrinaggio Inca situato sull'Isola del Sole nel lago Titicaca. Pertanto, si propone che Machu Picchu sia stata intenzionalmente pianificata e costruita per essere a sua volta un centro di pellegrinaggio collegato con la visione Inca del cosmo.
Ranieri, MarcelloPolcaro, AndreaTell Arad (zone H e M) e Bab edh-Dhra' (Charnel House A44): la geometria di alcuni edifici E.B.A. Lo squadro numerico, la composizione armonica e l'unità di lunghezzaBy means of CAD 1 analyses performed on the archaeological plans it has been possible to ascertain the geometrical, numerical and metric contents of some Early Bronze Age architectural structures of the Dead See area. The study concern the sites of Tell Arad (zone H and M) and Bab edh-Dhra’ (Charnel House A44). For both and with a high grade of reliability it has been possible to demonstrate the use of the same length-unit, moreover coinciding with the known value of the Phoenician cubit of 0,515 m: this allows to hypothesize a technological continuity from Early Bronze to Iron ages. It has been possible to clearly ascertain the use of Perfect (Pythagorean) and Quasi-Perfect triples as well as the employment of identical harmonic schemes of construction and their numerical combinations. Beyond the intrinsic archaeological value, the results indicates the high efficaciousness of the employed research methodology.
Rossi, Adriana-La misura del tempo nel chiostro romanico di Sant CugatDuring the 20 th century, Marius Schneider (1903-1982) furthered his studies on natural philosophies and linked them to certain aspects of the artistic production of the Middle Ages. In particular, he examined the cloisters of three Romanesque abbeys located in the county of Barcelona and managed to identify, from a methodological point of view, the univocal and consequential link between the apparently random and fantastical pattern of the icons engraved on the capitals and the substantially consistent composition of musical, astrological and narrative rhythms. In this perspective the cloister of Sant Cugat was studied to analyze the reasons which seem to confirm the references and connections within a pre-telescope culture and mainly to represent, using the new information technology techniques, the alleged links between sculptures, sounds, narrations, solar quadrants and astronomic calendars which configure the material and non material character of the cloister.
Ruggieri, FrancescoPagano, MarioIl tempio e le stelle. Analisi dell'orientamento di templi e santuari delle popolazioni parlanti la lingua oscaOrientations of Samnite-ethnos populations’ sanctuaries tend to be unusually grouped in a limited lapse of horizon between EAST and SOUTH. 33 sanctuaries from this ethnos have been investigated and compared with other structures from other cultures. The same comparison is then widened to include both megalithic structures of Apulia (Italy) and Hoskin’s surveys. You’ll be presented with results of such comparison and some possible explanations of this phenomenon will be submitted.
Sigismondi, Costantino-Misura del ritardo accumulato dalla rotazione terrestre, ΔUT1, alla Meridiana Clementina della basilica di Santa Maria degli Angeli in RomaThe Clementine Gnomon is a solar meridian telescope dedicated to solar astrometry operating as a giant pinhole dark camera, being the basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli the dark room. This instrument built in 1701-1702 by the will of pope Clement XI by Francesco Bianchini (1662-1729) gives solar images free from distortions, excepted atmospheric refraction, because the pinhole is opticsless. Similar historical instruments are in Florence (Duomo, by Toscanelli and Ximenes), Bologna (San Petronio, by Cassini), Milan (Duomo, by De Cesaris) and Palermo (Cathedral, by Piazzi). The azimut of the Clementine Gnomon has been recently referenced with respect to the celestial North pole, and it is 4’28.8”±0.6”, a comparison with similar coeval instruments is presented. Also the local deviations from a perfect line are known with an accuracy better than 0.5 mm. With these calibration data we used the Gnomon to measure the delay of the solar meridian transit with respect to the time calculated by the ephemerides ( D UT1). The growth of this astronomical parameter is compensated by the insertion of a leap second ad the end of the year in order to keep the Universal Time close to astronomical phenomena within less than a whole second. On December 31, 2008 at 23:59:59 there is one of those leap seconds leading to 23:59:60 before the new year’s midnight 00:00:00, being D UT1≈0.7 s at that date; the last similar event occurred on December 31, 2005. There are several modern observatories dedicated to astrometry which contribute to measure daily D UT1 under the coordination of 'Institute of Earth rotation and Reference system Service IERS', and we show how it is possible to perform such a measurement with the Clementine Gnomon. We emphasize the opportunity of considering the Clementine Gnomon as introductory in modern astrometry besides its key role in the history of astronomy. The need of a definitive solution in restoring the original pinhole is also shown. The adopted technique is videorecording at 60 fps solar transits with absolute timing reference. The reference ephemerides are those from the 'Institute de Mécanique Céleste et Calcul des Ephémérides IMCCE' and those of the Astronomical Almanac. D UT1 is measured with an accuracy of ±0.3 s.
Tunzi, Anna MariaLo Zupone, Mariangela - Antonello, Elio - Polcaro, Vito Francesco - Ruggieri, FrancescoIl santuario dell'età del Bronzo di Trinitapoli. Il calendario di pietraThe “Madonna di Loreto” site (so called because of a nearby ancient church), in Trinitapoli (Apulia), is the Bronze Age largest sanctuary to date known in Italy. There, an impressive complex of hypogeal sacred structures are excavated in the crumbly local calcareous subsoil. Looking to the general plan of the site, we can recognize the results of continuous religious activities, lasted for about eight centuries, up to the beginning of the Iron Age. Though the hypogea clearly reflect a deep ancient religiousness, its most imposing and longer lasting (from the Medium Bronze Age up to the Iron Age) expression is represented by thousands of circular holes, aligned in rows. They cover the whole surface of the site explored to date (at least 40000 square meters). The holes form deliberate long rows indicating a worship need shared by the community. The monumental character of their alignments suggests a large effort which excludes a rough-and-ready approach. Excluding a few groups, only three alignments are found, corresponding to the following average azimuths respectively: 181.2°± 1.7° (14 alignments); 61.5°±1.2° (11 alignments); 129.6°±0.8° (5 alignments). We can thus suggest that the first alignment (Meridian) points to a daily astronomical event (e.g. the culmination of Sun), the second one points to a early astronomical event (the sunrise of a peculiar day, near to the summer solstice), the third one points to a longer period astronomical event (the Southern Major Lunar Standstill), happening once every 18.6 years. At the present stage of the research, we can assume as most probable that the holes alignments of the “Madonna di Loreto” Bronze Age sanctuary represents a giant stone calendar. Hence the holes were made during several centuries by following a specific project which took into account given positions of the celestial bodies.
Antonello, Elio-Le stelle delle Orse e ArturoUrsa Maior is probably one of the oldest constellations identified by man, since it is a common cultural heritage among several native populations of Europe, Asia and America. The name of the star Arcturus, in Bootes, means Bear Guard in ancient Greek. If we take into account the apparent separation of Arcturus and the two Bears (Ursa Maior and Ursa Minor), such a name appears to be inappropriate. A possible explanation of the discrepancy could be the high proper motion of Arcturus; in fact the star was closer to the Bears during the Palaeolithic, therefore the origin of the name could be very remote. Among the ancient myths handed down by Greeks, that of the nymph Callisto explains the origin of Ursa Maior. Zeus seduced Callisto, she was transformed into a bear and gave birth to Arcas. The shebear Callisto and the hunter Arcas were then transformed into two constellations. About 50000 years ago the shape of Ursa Maior could remind that of a standing bear, and the shape of Ursa Minor that of a hunter.
Dallaporta, AnnamariaMarcato, LucioIl cielo del 'Samarangana Sutradhara'. Il trattato indiano sull'architettura degli inizi del sec. XIThe 'Samarangana Sutradhara' is an Indian meaty treatise on architecture, ascribed to Bhoja, king of Dhara (1018-1060 AD). The article aim is to point out the treatise references and topics connected with astronomy and more in general with the sky, that consequently we can deem as a normal learning of an architect. Particularly the first chapters let emerge how the correspondence between the creator deity Brahma and the architect biased all, correspondence that sanctioned the sacredness of the architect work. A full chapter (the 4th) has cosmological features nearly to set out without doubt the cultural reference to which conform every architectural project ('latu sensu'). An other chapter (the 5th) is totally dedicated on astronomical subjects expressed within a “true” science as rooted in the myth and the religion. Farther the references to celestial bodies or phenomena have in general a calendarial and astrological meaning. The Sky however joined the planning and the realizations of architects putting itself also as essential element of correspondence through its symbolic model, the 'Vastu-Purusha mandala' (chap. 11th), with various and detailed directional guidelines. For being (almost) perfect and reflecting the Sky, all had to be and to be done in the right direction, that is place itself in the direct relation with the most suitable deity. It was task of the architect to know and respect strictly the treatise prescripts because of the heavy negative effects of the mistakes.
Frau, Sergio-Nuove, antiche sorprese geologiche al di là delle (prime) Colonne d'ErcoleExhibitions/meetings were devoted to my research at Unesco and at Academy of the Lincei (see www.colonnedercole.it): my hypothesis on the Remote Past of Sardinia is now a thesis just after few years. The national and international scientific community gave me reason about the earliest setting of the Hercules’ Columns at the Sicily Channel. But there are different positions on the course of my reconstruction, that is also respectful of the most ancient classic sources. According to many scholars and readers we have to believe to the ancient texts about the existence an amazing island beyond the earliest Hercules’ Columns (the Sicily Channel) that was destroyed by the sea later, just when its civilisation reached the apogee. Other people – mostly in Sardinia - says instead that the ancient traditions (Plato, Homer, Ramses the 3 rd , etc.) do not say the true. The real “problem” is Atlantis... However a fact is certain: Sardinia - with its climate, its wonders, its very ancient feasts – plays well the role of that Island–Myth, both archeologically and culturally. Did a tsunami – a Poseidon’s Slap, with mountains of mud to bury the towns – take place really in ancient Sardinia, how the Francesco Cubeddu’s aerial photographs seem to testify, with many nuraghi trapped underground?
Ghedini, Elena FrancescaColpo, IsabellaMito e razionalità nel cielo di OvidioOvid’s 'Metamorphosis' are one of the most important collections of Latin literary myths: the fifteen books of this masterpiece include 250 myths, each of them characterised by the final metamorphosis of the protagonist – that is to say by his transformation into stone, plant, animal or statue, depending on whether gods rule as a punishment or a reward for a certain action. However, this classic book is not only a sort of mythical genealogy, but also a literary masterpiece in which the author wisely uses, at the same time, various suggestions offered by different literary styles. This piece of work mirrors a complex and dynamic society – a society similar to the Augustan one, with its philosophical, political, artistic and cultural components. In Ovid’s work, astral and cosmic references also have a great place: it is nevertheless true that in the author’s heaven the characters of the myth occupy a very limited place, in particular if they are put in relationship with the more frequent scientific – or pseudoscientific – references that attest the poet’s interest in astronomical issues. These references do not constitute an organic body, but they are inserted into various contests according to the necessities of the narration: it is only through a patient rereading of the text that we can catch those elements that are useful to reassemble Ovid’s knowledge – an aspect that till now has been ignored by the critics. The second part of this essay will face the myths of “catasterismo”, that is to say the transformation of heroes and heroines, and even animal or objects, into stars. It seems strange that this kind of episodes, rather frequent in the 'Fasti' (another Ovid’s work) are almost absent in the 'Metamorphosis', dedicated instead to the act of transformation.
Polcaro, Vito Francesco-Il ruolo della statistica nell'archeoastronomiaStatistics is a powerful tool for Archaeology in general and an essential one for Archaeoastronomy. The astronomical contents in an artifact of archaeological interest should be translated in more or less explicit symbols (such as paintings, sculptures, etc.), but, more often, are translated in the orientation of structures, looking to the direction of particular astronomical phenomena, considered by the builders of symbolic (association with celestial gods) and/or practical (calendric) interest. Since most cultures know at least cardinal directions and the ones of sunrise and sunset at winter and summer solstices and the uncertainty associated to each alignment must be considered at least equal to ±1°, these 8 directions cover 16° over the 360° of the horizon i.e. 4.4%. This percentage corresponds to 1 probability over 22 of chance coincidence of an alignment with one of the 8 basic directions. Thus, the presence of one alignment with one of these basic direction of astronomical interest in an archaeological structure does not guarantee that this alignment is intentional. This paper reminds a number of “thumb rules” to be taken into account in order to claim the actual intentionality of an astronomical alignment.
Valerio, Vladimiro-Uno straordinario cielo stellato di Piero della Francesca. Il 'Sogno di Costantino' in S. Francesco ad ArezzoThe recent restorations of the frescos by Piero della Francesca in the Church of S. Francesco in Arezzo, made appear on the backdrop of the scene of Costantino’s dream a number of stars clearly painted with the intention to show a sort of “natural” sky. In 2001 Anna Maria Maetzke recognise in a group of stars the constellation of the Little Bear but so far no further study has been carried on to find any relation between the painted and the true sky. In this paper I show the existence of more constellations hardly detectable due to the mirror representation in the fresco. Mirror image of the starry sky, as the Universe was seen from outside, has a Greek origin and was carried on in the western world not only in material sphere but also in star maps. That means that Piero had at his disposal either a globe or a map which was reproduced on the fresco. My hypothesis is that a star map might be supplied to the famous Renaissance painter by the astronomer Regiomontano who was in Italy since 1461 following the Cardinal Bessarione in his trip back to Rome from Wien. The Cardinal Bessarione was named papal legate to Venice in 1463 and at the beginning of July of the same year he leaved Rome with Regiomontano to reach Ferrara and Venice. The way to Venice passed through Umbria and Sansepolcro, Piero’s birthplace, close to Arezzo and the trip took over two weeks due to a stop before crossing the Apennines for the plague in Ferrara. Bessarione and Regiomontano might have met Piero, who were engaged in the cycle of frescos in Arezzo in those days and supplied him with a star map. Due to the lack of the horizon and any right line in the scene it is not possible to detect the latitude of the place corresponding to that sky.
Castaldi, Francesco-Kepler e le sue misconosciute leggi di partenzaWith the proclamation of 2009 as the International Year of Astronomy by the United Nations, there is to remember, among other important events of 1609, the publication of Kepler’s 'Astronomia nova', a book where we find those discoveries afterwards remembered as his first two laws. But they are only the arrival points of Kepler’s revolution, who had to struggle against a lot of prejudicial statements originating from the past, when his predecessors had subjected the physic reality to their mathematics solutions. Three main underestimated starting reforms of Kepler has been considered by an important scholar of our times, C. Wilson: no more the Mean Sun as point of reference for the planetary orbits and motions, but the True Sun; every orbital plane shall pass through the true Sun’s centre, at a constant inclination to the plane of the ecliptic; bisection of the eccentricity of Earth’s orbit. The present work wishes briefly to remember the huge gaps that Kepler had to fill in order to ferry the astronomy from kinematics of his predecessors to the firm foundations on which the descendants built the knowledge of it.
Ricci, MassimoListorti, Silvia - Lanciano, NicolettaIl calendario runico conservato nel Museo Missionario Etnologico dei Musei VaticaniThis runic calendar is composed of 8 tablets made of reindeer horns; it is of Lapp origin and dated to 1650. The runic inscriptions are carved on the tablets and then highlighted with the addition of some ink. The size of the tablets is 12,5x2,8x0,3 cm. This calendar was used like a book: all the tablets were held together with strings passing through the two small holes on the long side of each tablet. The book-form was common among the Swedish population at that time in the Baltic coast. There are two distinct rows on each tablet: the row of the days of the week and the row of the feast days. The first row shows the days of the year with 52 repetitions of 7 runes (the runes are letters of an ancient Nordic alphabet called 'Futhark'), the second row shows the symbols indicating Christian celebrations, solstices, equinoxes and also local events (for example markets) and, more rarely, pagan holidays. In order to use any runic calendar, that is perpetual, we have to know the Sun cycle of 28 years and the method to determine the letter for Sunday and, therefore, the dates of Sunday in any year. (See also 'Primstaff. I calendari runici del Museo Astronomico e Copernicano di roma e di S. Geneviève a Parigi', di S. Listorti, M. Ricci e N. Lanciano).
Antonello, Elio-Analisi dei moti propri stellari e forma delle costellazioniThe precession effects estimated by means of polynomial expressions in time are valid for epochs only within few millennia before and after the present date, therefore one can just estimate roughly the absolute position of the stars in the very far past. However, the attempt to get an insight into the ancient myths concerning the constellations requires the possibility of representing the sky of many ten thousand years ago. In this attempt one has to deal essentially with the shape of the constellations, that is with the relative position of the stars, therefore he can neglect the precession and take into account just the stellar proper motions, along with parallaxes and radial velocities. It is shown that the data gathered by satellites and modern instrumentation allow us to estimate with good precision the motion of nearby stars, so it is possible to represent their relative position even in the far past.
Brescia, Teodoro-La rivoluzione del ciclo zodiacale. La simbologia olistica e l'archeoastronomiaThe presence of one same figure in the representing of many eastern and western ancient divinities, 'bull' (or 'taurus'), is regular. This clue has decided this new my research on the Original Holism (a very ancient oriental tradition) and its symbolism. The same Catholic Church, in effect, reminds us that «the calf and the bull symbolized divinity in the ancient East» (Cei 1983, p. 76). So, the iconography of Christ’s nativity between a donkey (that had carried Mary big with a child) and, again, a 'bull' (founded in the stable) becomes particularly intriguing. After a comparative study of these elements, this research seems to prove that originally: (a) such animal figure meant zodiacal era; (b) Jewish religion, therefore also the Christianity, derives from a more ancient tradition ('Original Holism') connected to astronomical culture; (c) Besides, a real revolution of the theory of zodiacal cycle occurred in the change from paganism to Christianity.
Carboniero, BrunoFalconi, Fabrizio'In hoc signo vinces'North of Rome, along the Via Flaminia in the Malborghetto region lie the remains of a magnificent monument. Most scholars agree, this four fronted 4th century arch, was constructed in honour of the Emperor Constantine’s for the defeat of Emperor Maxentius in the Battle of Milvian Bridge. According to Christian tradition Constantine saw the sign of the cross in the sky. In a dream he was told to “mark the heavenly sign of God on the shields of his soldiers”, a divine symbol which led him to victory. Therefore the night and the sky seemed the obvious areas in which to investigate. By an astronomy programme having set the co-ordinates 42°02°08” lat N and 12°29°13” long E (Malborghetto) at 10 pm 312 AD, then traced the constellations which would have been visible. Clearly identifiable just above the horizon to the west, was a Cross or rather the Cygnus (swan) constellation! (azm 290° alt +34°28’). Evidence of this astronomical aspect is clearly found in Piero’s 'Constantine’s dream' (1455). On the upper left hand side an angel is depicted in such a way as to resemble a swan, just as the constellation was represented in classical iconography. Thus, Piero’s 'Constantine’s dream' was in fact “heretical”, yet scientifically valid. A scientific fact hidden within a religious image. So as not to fall foul of the Inquisition. The angels wings allude to the image of a swan, the very constellation that was visible on that particular night.
Listorti, SilviaRicci, Massimo - Lanciano, NicolettaPrimstaff. I calendari runici del Museo Astronomico e Copernicano di Roma e di S. Geneviève a ParigiIn our work we have tried to interpret the symbols and functioning comparing the two Primstaffs to identify any matches or differences. The symbols inscribed on staff of S. Geneviève are more essential, however the succession of signs deploy, in both, in accordance to the runic calendars classics: are organized in such a way to refer the days of the year through 52 repetitions of 7 “runes” engraved on the two wide sides the staff, one for each season. Above the runes of the days are engraved additional symbols linked to the various civil and religious holidays in particular, show some the Virgin Mary, of the Saints and Martyrs of Christianity, which are identified by symbols of their life or tools of their martyrdom. There are also the symbols for Solstices and Equinoxes. The calendars are perpetual and, through a relatively simple calculation, it is possible to determine the Sunday letter. The lunar month, that exists only on the calendar of the Copernican Museum, is divided into 19 runes alternated by spaces for a total of 29 days that are repeated throughout the year. The lunar cycle allows to determine in which days of the year there will be new moons marked by the 'aureus number'.
Lupato, Giovanni-La supernova del 1054 a BisanzioAfter long study and various publications, about western observations of the 1054 supernova, the author reconsiders the first steps of his historical analysis, concerning the symbolic interpretations of this star in Byzantium, on the same days when the Great Schism took place. His search starts from the temporal coincidence between the date of a Chinese source and the Byzantine Schism which happened exactly on the same days. The political changes had a 23 days’ span and that was the same period of the greatest brightness of the supernova as reported in another Chinese text. The analysis focuses on the historical figures who were concerned with the event and gave their symbolic interpretation. The consequent rapid political changes seem to follow the star’s curve of light: those who had profited from the greatest brightness of the star repented their moves when the light diminished. The Emperor coined a new coin with two stars. From the number of these particular coins, we can infer that they had been coined for 23 days. Now every historical figure accused the other ones of astrological beliefs, and on the following days many books were burned, astrology was forbidden, and so we have no Byzantine report of the Schism. We have only two records of the supernova by a Baghdad doctor, who was in Byzantium o these days, and we have also some hermetic descriptions of the censored sky phenomenon.
Martocchia, AndreaPolcaro, Vito FrancescoChi l'ha vista? Cas A, un resto di supernova inspiegatoThe Supernova (SN) remnant known as Cas A was generated by a very recent SN explosion. Dynamic studies led to suppose that the explosion happened about 300 years ago. In that period, continuous observations were performed by European as well as Chinese “Astronomical Bureau” astronomers. However, only a single 17th Century observation, due to Flamsteed, reports of a faint “new star” in that area of the sky. Many models attempted to explain the lack of observation of the Cas A explosion: however, none of them is fully satisfying. We present here a different hypothesis. The 'Chin Shu' dynastic chronicle tells about the apparition of a “guest star” in a sky position compatible with the one of Cas A on 369 AD. This text has not been considered to date as an actual testimony of a SN explosion because of the lack of confirmation by other sources. However, our analysis of a number of paleo-Christian artworks of the same epoch shows the presence of an unusual celestial phenomenon also in the sky of Rome, confirming the Chinese report. If the association of this phenomenon with Cas A will be confirmed, the Cas A explosion could have happened 1300 years before the presently accepted date. Otherwise, the remnant of the SN 369 has to be discovered yet.
Giannetto, Enrico R. A. Calogero-Prefazione [al volume, comprendente atti SISFA e SIA]-
De Pace, Anna-La Nuova Fisica Copernicana-
Castaldi, Francesco-I mesi successivi alla stampa del 'Sidereus Nuncius'
Guerrini, Luigi-Predicazione e nuova scienza. I domenicani fiorentini contro Galileo (1610-15)-
Lanciano, Nicoletta-Incontro le osservazioni astronomiche di Galileo Galilei-
Pisano, Raffaele-Note storiche sul carattere fisico del 'Trattato di Fortificazione' di Galilei-
Taschini, AudreyGiannetto, Enrico R. A. CalogeroJohn Donne e Thomas Harriot. Gli 'Anniversari' e la 'New Philosophy'-
Ricciardo, Salvatore-Robert Boyle lettore di Descartes. Leggi di natura e cause finali-
Giannetto, Enrico R. A. Calogero-Isaac Newton, la relatività, Henry More e la teologia della quarta dimensione-
Pisano, RaffaeleCapecchi, Danilo - De Cesaris, Fabrizio - Brenci, FlaviaNote su scienza e tecnica-
Drago, Antonino-Il processo plurisecolare di nascita della scienza moderna
Capecchi, Danilo-Aristotle's mechanics and virtual work principle
Meschiari, Alberto-Giovanni Battista Amici alla Specola di Boboli in Firenze. 23 dicembre 1831-23 dicembre 1859-
Antonello, Elio-Barnaba Oriani e il generale Bonaparte
Bordoni, Stefano-Beyond Classical Mechanics and Classical Thermodynamics: Duhem's wide-scope theoretical physics-
Villone, BarbaraCalore, FrancescaIl tempo in fisica. Evoluzione storica tra certezze e ambiguità. Il caso dell'irreversibilità e non solo-
Drago, Antonino-Storia del corpo nero: Plank ha ragionato in logica non classica-
Badino, Massimiliano-The Strange Equation of Dr. Sackur and Mr. Tetrode-
Cioci, Vincenzo-Galileo e Oppenheimer: processo alla scienza
D'Agostino, Salvo-Il celebre esperimento mentale del gatto. Per Schroedinger il paradosso è rivolto contro la filosofia di Copenhagen e l'interpretazione statistica di Einstein
Rossi, ArcangeloButtaro, CristianoIl versante fondazionale della fisica italiana del primo Novecento-
Acocella, Giovanni-Alcune lettere di scienziati nell'Archivio della Fondazione D'Agostino-
Salesi, GiovanniEsposito, SalvatoreFundamental times, lengths and physical constants. The known story and some unknown contributions by Ettore Majorana-
Salesi, GiovanniLongo, MichelaAn interesting research note by Majorana on melting thermodynamics in magnetic media-
Mazzoni, MassimoCiternesi, Anna CorinnaLa catalogazione delle carte di Augusto Occhialini-
Baracca, AngeloGerlini, MatteoCronologia delle contrastate vicende dei programmi nucleari civili italiani. Ambizioni e improvvisazioni-
Franchini, Laura-Strumenti scientifici antichi e divulgazione scientifica alla Città della Scienza di Napoli nell'Anno Galileiano-
Giannetto, Enrico R. A. Calogero-Prefazione [al volume, comprendente atti SISFA e SIA] [scheda duplicata per il senso del contributo]-
Antonello, Elio-La stella Spica e la Vergine
Arslan, Ermanno A.-Gallieno imperatore tra le stelle-
Balestrieri, Riccardo-Il monumento funebre di Margherita di Brabante e l'orientamento della chiesa di San Francesco-
Brunod, GiuseppeVeneziano, GiuseppeLa roccia del Sole a Paspardo (Brescia). Una meridiana stagionale per gli uomini dell'età del rame-
Calzolari, EnricoCarrucoli, AntonelloUtilizzo di fasci di luce come indicatori puntuali di fenomeni astronomici nel Castellare di Pignone (La Spezia) e nel sito pre-etrusco di Poggio Rota (Grosseto)-
Càndito, Cristina-Il disegno delle tavole astronomiche del Collegio Romano-
Codebò, Mario-The knowledge of the aequinoctial precession before Hypparcus
Dallaporta, AnnamariaMarcato, LucioIpotesi su origini e sviluppo dell'insediamento di Kampil (U. P., India)
Ienna, Domenico-Il cielo nel folklore italiano. Il caso del Cilento (Salerno)-
Magli, Giulio-The Sacred Space at the time of the Solar Kings: Heliopolis, Giza, Abusir-
Motta, SilviaGaspani, AdrianoCalakmul (Mexico). Il pianeta Venere (Noh Ek) nella geometria, struttura e orientamenti astronomici del sito
Polcaro, Vito FrancescoMartocchia, AndreaLe radici dell'astronomia moderna-
Polcaro, Vito Francesco-Il ruolo dell'astronomia culturale nella divulgazione della cultura scientifica-
Tuscano, Maria Luisa-L'orologio di re Ruggiero nel Palzzo dei Normanni di Palermo-
Antonello, Elio-Presentazione [del volume]-
Antonello, ElioPolcaro, Vito Francesco - Tunzi, Anna Maria - Lo Zupone, MariangelaBuche cultuali e stelleDuring the Neolithic and Bronze Age the farmers living in the wide plain of Daunia dug hole rows whose characteristics seem to suggest a ritual use, since the hypothesis of agricultural or post hole application probably should be excluded. The rows could be interpreted taking into account their astronomical orientation. In the case of a site discovered in Ordona the orientations could be the setting of the bright stars of Centaurus. No remains were found inside the holes, so no estimate of their probable age is possible. Also the orientations of the hole rows discovered in Trinitapoli-Mandriglia could be interpreted by adopting the stars of Centaurus. Since the precession effect must be taken into account, it would be possible to derive an astronomical dating of the holes. The spectacular region of the sky of Centaurus – Crux group was remarked by several astronomers and scholars of the past, and its diffused light effect, discussed by G.V. Schiaparelli a century ago, could have been significant for ancient civilizations.
Balestrieri, Riccardo-L'orientamento delle chiese romaniche in Liguria. I. MetodiIn July 2010 a systematic study began on the astronomical orientations of buildings in Liguria. The results were released immediately on the web with a hypertext: 'Urania Ligustica'. For 43 Romanesque churches there is a card, which contains a brief description of the church, WGS84 geodetic coordinates, azimuthal orientation of the longitudinal axis, bibliography. For 13 churches a record is sketched with more complete documentation, photographs and original interpretation of astronomical alignments: 4 almost complete examples have been realized. For the space dedicated to the photos, this tool is also an atlas of the churches founded in Liguria from X to XIII century.
Bianchi, Ettore A.-Storiografia e astronomia in Berosso da Babilonia (III secolo avanti Cristo)Berossos from Babylon lived at the opening of Hellenistic Era, about 350-270 BC. He was a priest devoted to god Marduk and an expert astrologist. At the court of king Antiochus I of Syria, this educated man wrote an apologetic history of his own country, which covered many hundred thousand years. Such an amount of time was determined on the basis of an arcane cosmic cycle; a very long one indeed, lasting not less than 432000 years, closed by a cataclysm like the universal Flood. Since the occurrence of this catastrophic event, in Berossos’ view, was associated with a rare conjunction of the Sun and all the other planets in the background of the Capricorn constellation, it seems reasonable to suspect that he had in mind a slow, gradual but inexorable motion of the Sun around the Zodiac, very similar to what we now call ‘Aequinoctial Precession’. To confirm this hypothesis, it is worth mentioning that the same Author used to measure the flowing time also by 12 shorter intervals, each 36000 years long; the duration of these sub-periods is equivalent exactly to one entire circuit of the Zodiac, in the case that the Vernal Point moved at the speed of 1° per 100 years. Therefore, the special chronological pattern that is found in the 'Babyloniakà' might be ultimately derived from a Chaldean theory of the Precession, achieved well before the age of Hypparchus (130 BC).
Calzolari, EnricoDi Benedetto, VincenzoL'allineamento equinoziale di 'Pian Brès' nel territorio di Andrate (Torino)The name of Andrate, a municipality near Turin, could derive from the celtic roots 'and + art', which would mean borderland, possibly the one between two celtic tribes, named Vittimuli and Salassi. The astronomical observations made in the site of ‘Pian Brès’ in the territory of Andrate during the equinoctial and summer solstice periods gave the following values: a) equinoctial sunset: solar azimuth 266°30’ and altitude 4°15’ due to the sky-line elevation; b) equinoctial sunrise: solar azimuth 90°18’ and altitude 0°34’; c) summer sunrise: solar azimuth 55°29’ and altitude 0°32’. Since in Pian Brès it was not possible to observe well the summer sunset, the corresponding measurements were performed in the site called ‘Alpe Peila’ (1332 meters above sea-level): the solar azimuth was 300°16’ and the altitude 3°49’, on the sky-line given by the mountain named ‘Bec Renon’ (2265 meters above sea-level).
Càndito, Cristina-Strumenti per la misurazione della terra e del cielo tra XVI e XVII secoloStudies on the evolution of the instruments adopted in the past for surveying allow an interpretation of the relationship between architecture and astronomy. It may therefore be useful to study the birth and development of instruments used for linear measurement in the sixteenth and seventeenth century and compare them with those used to understand the celestial phenomena. This is a period that prepares and develops the scientific revolution, which finds its climax in the early observations made by Galileo with his new telescope. Studies made by Egnazio Danti, Muzio Oddi and Scipione Chiaramonti are just some examples of the many scholars who are concerned with measuring instruments for land and are also interested in astronomy and sundials, a share of the mathematical foundations and cultural factors that characterized the architecture and astronomy of the past.
Castaldi, Francesco-La precisione nelle coordinate astronomiche prima del telescopioImprovements in the field of star coordinates were always fundamental for any progress in astronomy, as the discovery of the equinox precession demonstrates in II century BC, when Hipparchus made some confrontations with preceding catalogues of stars. In II century AD Ptolemy in his 'Almagest' built a mathematical cosmic system able to demonstrate how the movements of Sun, Moon and planets happen in the sky, having a catalogue of star’s coordinates. It was updated for centuries, but not greatly improved as to accuracy, until the great works of Tycho Brahe in the final three decades of the sixteenth century. He made use of the same kind of instruments of the past, but, due to his personal contribution, improved their dimensions and mechanic reliability, so that he obtained measures of angles pushed to some minutes of arc by new alidade and goniometer. Achieving such precision, the real problem became the measurement of time, previously subject to untrustworthy mechanical clocks. The paper concludes with the construction of the first pendulum clock by C. Huygens, 1657, thanks to the application of Galileo’s discovery of isochronism.
Cernuti, Silvia-Sull'identificazione di asterismi e costellazioniThe origin of constellations roots back to the human imagination. To overcome the darkness of the night, the different images which could have been drawn in the sky looking at the stars were named by identifying them with animals and heroes. It is important to understand how the human brain organized and linked the stars in structures, asterisms and constellations; we apply the principles of psychology that try to describe our ability to acquire meaningful perceptions, forming a global whole (self-organization). A short discussion of the asterism of Pleiades and their different identifications and representations is reported.
Codebò, MarioDe Santis, HenryIndagine archeoastronomica relativa all'orientamento degli ingressi di alcune sepolture del periodo Hafit nel Sultanato di OmanIn this paper the authors describe the results of a preliminary survey about three archaeological sites in the Sultanate of Oman: Ra's al Jinz 6 (RJ6), Ra's al-Hadd 6 (HD6) e Ra's al-Hadd 10 (HD10). Those sites are necropolis, with cylindrical shaped ruined tombs made of dry stones, dated at III millennium B.C. (Hafit period). The astronomical measurements that were made with surveyor’s spherical cross have determined the orientations of the middle axes of all the thresholds of tombs and, subsequently, the subtended declinations. From the results it is possible to argue two alternative conclusions: 1) the tombs have no astronomical alignments, or 2) almost all the thresholds may be aligned with the rise of brilliant stars or main constellations, whereas only very few orientations are toward Sun or Moon. In this last case, these orientations can be related with the paths of Enlil, Anu and Ea, cited by the Mesopotamian astronomy. However, further studies and field surveys are needed to confirm this hypothesis.
De Franceschini, MarinaVeneziano, GiuseppeArcheoastronomia nella Villa Adriana di TivoliHadrian’s Villa near Tivoli, Rome, built by Emperor Hadrian starting from 117 A.D., is the most important ancient roman Villa, one of the highlights of Roman architecture. Archaeoastronomy is a brand new field of research in this remarkable archaeological site. The authors discovered that the Accademia Esplanade (the Acropolis of the Villa) and its buildings (Accademia and Roccabruna) are oriented on the solstitial axis linking the sunrise of winter solstice to the sunset of summer solstice. Special light effects are occurring in those two buildings on both solstices. In the Accademia, the rays of the Sun illuminate a series of axial rooms, creating peculiar light spots on the walls of the so called Temple of Apollo. In Roccabruna, a special window creates a slot of light inside the domed vault of its main hall, as was discovered by the American architects Robert Mangurian and Mary-Ann Ray back in 1988. Archaeoastronomy led to a new interpretation of the function and meaning of the two buildings and of the Esplanade as the Sacred area of the Villa, as explained in the book by De Franceschini and Veneziano (2011).
De Rose, Luciana-Il volo della tartarugaThis essay deals with the Greek myths on the origin of the ancient constellation of Lyra and which are related to the turtle, a land animal that wished to fly. In the mythology the turtle is put in relation with the gods Hermes and Apollo. The former invented the string instrument, the lyre ('lyra'), by using the carapace of the turtle, and gave it to Apollo. The latter presented the lyre to Orpheus, the ancient mythological poet. Both the gods and the poet were related to the netherworld. As a reward, after his death, Orpheus became a constellation, named Lyra, as his beautiful instrument.
Gaspani, Adriano-Criteri astronomicamente significativi nella costruzione delle 'cloighteach' altomedievali irlandesiThe tall, slender, free-standing round towers with conical caps which are still such a striking feature of many of the more important mediaeval monastic settlements in Ireland date from the tenth to the early twelfth centuries. Their Irish name in the historical sources, cloighteach, means a bell-house, but this was not their main function. Most have high level doorways requiring a ladder for access, and historical references indicate that they were sometimes used for storing valuables and a refuge during raids. At the highest level there were four windows from which, perhaps, hand bells would have been rung. In this work a set of 40 cloighteach, were measured and analyzed from the archaeoastronomical point of view in order to study the distribution of the orientation of the doorways as well as the windows with respect with the cardinal astronomical frame. The data were collected during three independent campaigns in 2003, 2005 and 2006 for 40 of the 97 towers at present surviving on the Emerald Island, collecting about 500 measurements. The azimut was calibrated with 39 independent GPS baseline in order to attach them to the geodetic meridian (very near to the astronomical one). In the site of Clonmacnois two towers are present, so a single GPS calibration baseline was used. The data analysis was of the global kind, neglecting the discussion of the individual tower, preferring to concentrate in the statistical analysis of the whole set of data. Three data-processing levels were individuated: the first deals with the distribution of the axes of the doorways with respect to the local astronomical frame showing that the doorways are distributed in the western arc of the local horizon only, and are strictly correlated with the direction of the main church (called ‘cathedral’) located in the monastic settlements. The second data-processing level deals with the windows (usually four) located at the highest level of the towers, showing strong correlation with the cardinal astronomical directions. The third level deals with the windows placed at the intermediate level that resulted randomly distributed with respect to the astronomical reference frame. Finally some hypotheses were taken in account in order to investigate the possible orientation techniques applied by the mediaeval Irish monks. It seems highly probable that the most common ones were the direct observation of the northern circumpolar constellations in order to find the celestial pole and the observation of the sunrise in the conventional day of the vernal equinox established by the Julian Calendar adopted by the Irish Christian monks, at the local skyline. The time-shift between the date of the true solar equinox and that forecasted by the calendar implied a systematic error in azimut that seems to explain very well the average orientation error of the highest level windows. The discussion of some topic dealing with the Sacred Geometry in the Irish monastic settlements emerged during the present work is under investigation and is postponed to a future paper.
Ienna, Domenico-Integrazione tra culture e apporti individuali nella denominazione mitopoietica 'globalizzata' di stelle e costellazioniThrough intricate dynamics (not completely reconstructed) of integration and syncretism between ancient Euro–Asiatic cultural grounds and ‘Western’ modern contributions – even with the basic contribution of personal creative inputs, certainly not free from interpretative mistakes – a worldwide ‘koiné’ of mythopoeic denomination/interpretation of celestial bodies and related constellations was gradually created. Such a nomenclature – officially ‘globalized’ at the beginning of the last century amongst the permanence of ‘traditional’ ethnic/folkloric knowledge in a local extent – even though it is by now limited to a stimulating reference system from an astronomical point of view, certainly it is still representing an extraordinary space for historical and mainly anthropological research.
Incerti, Manuela-Modelli e fonti astronomiche nel rinascimento ferrarese: la Certosa e il 'De Sphaera estense'The study is aimed at the documentation and investigation of the ancient Carthusian orientation system via integrated surveys. The sixteenth-century church of the complex, one of the most important sacred buildings of Renaissance Ferrara, has been attributed to Biagio Rossetti (Ferrara, 1447 approximately - 1516), the court architect and 'Addizione Erculea' architect. Its orientation follows that of the primitive monastic system and certainly a design model of reference of the period. The simultaneous presence of an extraordinary illuminated manuscript, the 'De Sphaera estense', should also be remembered, an exceptional document that testifies the Estes interest in astronomy and astrology.
Lanciano, NicolettaMorellato, JodyIl regolo lunare di Palazzo Spada, Roma. Indagine su un erroreA first part of historic-artistic character of the present study introduces the catoptric clock of the Palazzo Spada and the tools related to it. The so-called lunar regulus is then examined, a tool that would permit to know the solar hours even at night thanks to a simple conversion, but which, according to some scholars, do not provide correct results. The authors discuss the motion of the moon with respect to the sun and go through the direct ancient and modern sources with the goal of making understandable the operation of the instrument and discover the origin of the errors. In the Appendix a teaching tool derived from this research is presented.
Magini, Leonardo-The astronomical foundations of the Romulean calendar, its relationship with the Numan calendar and the slippage of the winter solstice: an hypothesisLe basi astronomiche del calendario romuleo – fondato sulle osservazioni di due fenomeni, il solstizio d’inverno e la levata vespertina di Arturo – e la modalità del passaggio dal calendario romuleo a quello numano, con lo slittamento del solstizio d’inverno: un’ipotesi. Questo articolo è un riassunto dei Capitoli 26 e 27 di 'Stars, Myths and Rituals in Etruscan Rome', che è stato poi pubblicato presso Springer International Publishing AG nel 2015.
Polcaro, Vito Francesco-Alcor, la Volpe e il 'Signore che Uccide'The majority of the Greek constellations, and then those which have entered into classical astronomy, is closely linked to those of Ancient Mesopotamia. This correspondence is lacking only in a few cases, in which the most significant is certainly the Ursa Major. In fact, in the Sumerian sky, two others constellation replace it. The first one was called MAR.GID 2 .DA (= ‘The Long Wagon’). This name is evidence that it consisted of the majority of the stars that currently make up the Big Dipper, since this is the only way to recognize a ‘wagon’ in this asterism. The second constellation, much smaller (0.5 deg only), was centered on the star KA 5 A (= ‘The Fox’) and it was identified by the same name. This star is now known by the Arabic name of Alcor (80 UMa). This situation is quite surprising, given that Alcor (V = 4) is not particularly bright and it is two magnitudes weaker than the nearby (14 arcmin) Mizar. In addition, the Mizar- Alcor pair is easily solved by naked eye in dark skies. For this reason, some years ago, we suggested that, in the Sumerian epoch, Alcor had increased for a certain period its brightness of more than two magnitudes, thus overcoming Mizar with its brilliance. On the other hand, we stressed in the same work that it was not easy to find an astrophysical reason for this hypothesized magnitude increase. However, the recent possible identification of the Alcor companion with a white dwarf allows us to reconsider this assumption.
Ranieri, Marcello-Le diagonali e gli orientamenti archeoastronomiciThe choice of the main axis of the temple as the geometric feature in respect of which the orientation is to be seek is a universally adopted criterion. However, there are many cases where, in front of an unrecognizable orientation of the main axis, it is the diagonal that shows seemingly a clear alignment to a cardinal direction. This has stimulated a specific investigation on the orientation of the diagonals of those Greek temples that are evidently not cardinally oriented. A sample of 61 of such structures has been analysed in CAD using data from qualified literature. The results show that the spread of the deviations of the diagonals from the cardinal directions is very small, that is within ± few degrees. This point to a general preference for the cardinal orientation of the temples either along the main axis or along the diagonals. In these latter cases it is the geometric shape of the stylobate to rule the true direction of the main axis or vice versa.
Rossi, Adriana-Il rilievo della porta dello zodiacoToday what Western cultures owes to Eastern culture has been widely acknowledged. The contamination of customs encouraged during the Templar period inspired the hypotheses and thus the development of the theory: to consider Romanesque art based on the iconography of time as an expression of an intricate language that interweaves Hellenic culture with the awakening of natural forms. Therefore it is necessary to take into consideration what the wise men were able to learn by “observing the sky” (literal translation of vedantā) and interpret it according to the classical astronomy treatises, if one has to shed light on the mystery that to date still surrounds the art of this period.
Spinazzé, Eva-Spazio e luce nelle architetture sacre. L'orientazione delle chiese monastiche benedettine medioevali nel VenetoThe study deals with the orientation of the Benedictine churches of High and Low Middle Ages, situated in Northern Italy, exactly, in the Veneto. The results shows that most churches are aligned mainly with the path of the Sun. This report illustrates some examples in detail, such as the equinoctial and solstitial orientations as well as the orientation on the Maria’s holy day and on the commemoration day of the saint, to whom the building had been dedicated. A particular case is also discussed of the orientation of the church’s axis in the direction of the setting of the moon on the lunistitial day on the year of the probable foundation of the church as well as on the day of the church’s patron. The results obtained have some importance for the historical, archaeological and scientific aspects, which allowed to point out the astronomical and symbolic rules applied by the medieval constructors who designed the holy structures.
Tuscano, Maria Luisa-Riflessioni sulla valorizzazione museale degli Strumenti Astronomici 'extra moenia'Gli strumenti astronomici non compresi nello spazio fisico di un’esposizione museale restano talvolta esclusi dalle strategie che valorizzano i beni museali scientifici. Tra questi strumenti, qui indicati come extra moenia, si annoverano soprattutto le grandi meridiane monumentali e gli orologi astronomici, ma anche qualche antico orologio solare. Essi hanno contribuito, in modo più o meno rilevante, al percorso scientifico e storico dell’Astronomia e meritano, perciò, di entrare all’interno delle linee di sviluppo della normativa relativa ad un percorso museale. Attualmente si ritiene di evidenziare la tematica attraverso la sua analisi nello stato attuale, che tiene conto della presenza di questi beni scientifici in Italia e conseguentemente, nelle linee generali, del loro studio storico, della loro dignità espositiva, del loro mantenimento, nonché della valorizzazione in campo educativo.
Incerti, Manuela-Introduzione [al volume]-
Antonello, Elio-Saluto del Presidente [ai congressisti]-
Antonello, ElioPolcaro, Vito Francesco - Tunzi, Anna Maria - Lo Zupone, MariangelaSantuari preistorici della DauniaDuring the Bronze Age the farmers in northern Apulia dug long hole rows that cannot be apparently interpreted in terms of agricultural and post hole applications; the more reasonable explanation would be a cultual use in a sort of prehistoric sanctuary. Here we summarize the results of the astronomical analysis of the orientation of the rows, and we point out in particular the possible use of the setting of the stars of Centaurus in two archaeological sites. Since the precession effect must be taken into account, it would be possible to derive an astronomical dating of the holes. A first support to this interpretation has been given by an archaeological find.
Arnaldi, Mario-Orologi solari altazimutali medioevaliThe first image that comes to mind when we speak about medieval sundials is a vertical semicircle with some radiating lines on it. It is difficult to think of something different, but... The author lists some medieval manuscripts with instructions for making azimuthal sundials. This study has previously been published in three articles written in Gnomonica Italiana (GI), in 2008-2009 and then translated with improvements and corrections in the Monograph n. 10 of the British Sundial Society, titled “De Cursu Solis. Medieval azimuthal sundials. From the primitive idea to the first structured prototype” (to be published).
Balestrieri, Riccardo-L'orientamento delle chiese romaniche in Liguria. II. Le finestre del MezzogiornoTen churches, wherein Romanesque phase is still recognizable, are here considered. The analysis of oriented plans highlightes the possible use of windows on the south side as daytime regulators. Windows’ width is correlated to nave’s orientation: when the nave is oriented to the east, we see very narrow single-lancet windows; the windows are wider with increasing azimuth and we can see mullioned ones too. In all these cases, geometry and dimensions seem likely to throw a spot or a blade of light on the floor at local noon. This hypothesis has been tested with a chapel in Genoa: S. Agostino della Cella. Further tests should take account of changes that the buildings have undergone in the course of time. The coexistence, on the south side of three churches, of narrow single-lancet windows and large mullioned ones had not been previously explained.
Camardo, MichelangeloPolcaro, Vito FrancescoL'orientamento astronomico dell'ipogeo a doppio cerchio di Murgia TimoneThe Murgia Timone site, located a few kilometers from Matera in Natural Archaeological Park of the Rock Churches, has numerous historical landmarks, in particular those within the homonymous Neolithic village. This is a settlement with moat and domestic architecture in huts, that had an occupation from the Lower Neolithic to the Middle Neolithic. Archaeological excavations conducted in 1912 by the physician Domenico Ridola from Rellini in 1918 and Lo Porto and Brea in 1967-70 have also highlighted some hypogea, which show a second use of the plateau. The hypogea, probably excavated between the Bronze Age and the Middle Bronze Age, sometimes show a reuse chronologically extended until the Iron Age. Among these, it is particularly marked a monumental hypogeum that overlaps the trench, so it is clearly posterior to it. The monument emerges on the surface at the highest point of the terrace and is characterized by an underground double room, a hallway in the main room and two stone circles, the inner one surrounding the hypogeum area, and the other that defines the whole largest outer rock artifact. The double circle hypogeum has a clear astronomical orientation. In fact, the two chambers and their openings are designed so as to be significantly illuminated by the Sun in precise moments of the year.
Cappi, Alberto-Da Plutarco a Newton: storia di una teoria ellenistica della gravitàIn the dialogue 'De Facie quae in Orbe Lunae apparet' Plutarch presents a theory of gravity and a cosmology alternative to the Aristotelian ones. I analyze this text and show its influence across the centuries, particularly at the beginning of the modern scientific revolution, when it became a reference for the supporters of the heliocentric system.
Castaldi, Francesco-Un professore di astronomia a Bologna: G. A. Magini fra T. Brahe e J. KeplerGiovanni Antonio Magini, 1555-1617, was born in Padua and studied at Bologna University before being appointed to the role of professor of mathematics. This article will concentrate on his discoveries in the field of astronomy, where he is particularly noted for his work relating to the calculation of ephemerides i.e. mathematically predicting the relative, daily positions of the Sun, Moon and planets for several years into the future. His first work, 'Ephemerides coelestium motuum', printed in 1582, was referenced on more than ten occasions in Kepler’s fundamental publication 'Astronomia nova', 1609. This article will examine the epistolary relations between Magini and the two most preeminent astronomers of his time, namely Brahe and Kepler. Particular reference will be made to where Magini’s ephemerides became integral elements of Kepler’s discoveries.
Cerasetti, BarbaraCodebò, Mario - De Santis, HenryArchaeoastronomical surveys in TurkmenistanIn questa campagna sono stati misurati gli orientamenti presenti in tre località del Turkmenistan di età compresa tra il III millennio a.C. ed il XIII secolo d.C. Il risultato più interessante è rappresentato dagli orientamenti di Gonurdepe (2400-1950 a.C.) coincidenti con buona approssimazione con Thuban ( α Draconis), stella polare dell’epoca, e molto simili a quelli di alcune località coeve ancorché distanti: Lothal nella Valle dell’Indo, Giza nella valle del Nilo, Carahunge in Armenia. L’ipotesi di lavoro che ne scaturisce è che queste culture del III millennio a.C., a differenza di quelle europee, fossero use ad orientare le loro costruzioni sul Polo Nord Celeste e avessero quindi potuto già venire a conoscenza della precessione degli equinozi – come in altri lavori ipotizzato (Bianchi, Codebò 2005; Bianchi, Codebò, Veneziano 2005; 2009; 2010a; 2010b; Codebò submitted) – attraverso le variazioni in declinazione ed in azimut di Thuban nei secoli.
Codebò, MarioDe Santis, Henry - Frenez, DennysArchaeoastronomical surveys in Lothal (India)The Indus Civilization harbour-site of Lothal is located within a small doab facing to the Arabian Sea on the Gulf of Khambhat (Gujarat, India) at the confluence of the two rivers Bhogavo e Sabarmati (modern state of Gujarat). It expanded in Indus Valley during the second half of the 3 rd millennium BC at the top of the first great urban growth in India. The urban settlement (ca.10 ha) consists of an acropolis with the public and the ritual buildings and a lower town with the residential and the craft areas. A huge brick-lined water basin (m. 220 x 40 x 4) – variously interpreted as a water supply tank or a dockyard – has been discovered immediately East of the site. The acropolis and the dockyard were built matching the four cardinal marks, while the lower town has different orientations. In our report we show and discuss the results of our astronomical surveys on these ancient architectures.
Codebò, MarioSalvo, ElenaArchaeoastronomical surveys in Villa Adriana of Tivoli (Rome, Italy)This report was written at the beginning as an appendix of a book, therefore it was longer and more detailed; but, owing to the lack of agreement with the other joint authors, it is now edited like a single report. Moreover, owing to restrictions on printing space, we are obliged to remove the detailed description of calculation routines and algorithms and to describe only the results of our archaeoastronomical surveys in Roccabruna, Apollo’s Temple, Pecile, Marine Theatre, Imperial Palace and Three Exedras Building of Villa Adriana in Tivoli (Rome), using a spherical graduated surveyor’s cross and an inclinometer and also using a photo taken by Giuseppe Veneziano at Apollo’s Temple on 21 October 2010 Greenwich Universal Time Tm 18h 03m. All the procedures and calculations were published in Codebò & Salvo 2011 and they will be published on the web dominion http://www.archaeoastronomy.it.
Dallaporta, AnnamariaMarcato, LucioIl cielo e il tempio di Surya a Modhera (Gujarat, India)The Sun temple at Modhera, erected perhaps between 1025-1026 AD, is generally associated with the equinoxes. Studying the sky of those years, there seems to be a connection with the autumn equinox, compatible with the events at the time, and an important implication with the heliacal rising of Venus and Mars almost in conjunction, in the year 1026. The mythological and astrological meanings of this and others occurrences would provide the motives which inspired the king Bhima to build (or rebuild) the temple.
Ienna, Domenico-Implicita/esplicita presenza delle Pleiadi nella tradizione folklorica del CilentoThe cultural area of the research is Cilento, where the brightest stars of the open cluster M45 on one side, and magic young girls (for various reasons referred to the mythical daughters of Atlas) on the other side lead to a double way of folkloric presentation: the explicit one is expressed with calendric function by the asterism locally said ‘Gaddina’ (Hen) or ‘Pollara/Puddicinara/Puddecenara’ (brood of the chicks); on the contrary in the implicit one the classic archetype of female group seems to live again – with noteworthy narrative depth – under false colours in the ‘Weeping Fairies’ of Cilento.
Incerti, Manuela-Lo sguardo di San Miniato al Monte in FirenzeThe paper presents the archaeoastronomical study of the basilica of San Miniato al Monte in Florence (1018-1207) that does not confirm the hypothesis of a strict solstitial orientation. It also examines the iconography of the mosaic of the zodiac in relation to the sources available at the epoch of the foundation.
Lanciano, Nicoletta-Carte e globi del cielo e della Terra: visioni 'da dentro e da fuori'. Implicazioni per la didatticaMaps and globes are analyzed like some special representations of heaven and Earth. The Earth is always seen from outside as the sky can be shown from inside the sphere, as an observer on the Earth, or from outside, or like in a mirror. What implications do different cultural representations? How do they change in the history? I present some reflections on teaching and the response through the International Project Globe Local.
Martocchia, AndreaPolcaro, Vito FrancescoDa Ipazia a Galileo: una storia sociale dell'astronomia dalla fine dell'impero romano alla rivoluzione copernicanaThe analysis of the relationships existing between social changes on one side and the advances in the astronomical knowledge on the other side is the subject of the book 'Storia sociale dell’Astronomia'. The first part of the essay, from which a couple of relevant points are summarized here, is focused on the interaction between Islamic and European civilizations in the Middle Age up to the birth of modern science; it shows how astronomical research has never been a merely “abstract research” disconnected from society and its problems, but quite on the contrary has always been deeply influenced by the social and political context, both for developing models and in its instrumental practices as well.
Mele, Giampiero-'Sublimitas' nel convento di San Francesco a MartignanoThe exercise of the “liberal arts”, and in particular three of those of the quadrivium – arithmetic, geometry and astronomy –, was the tool needed for drawing the ascendant so-called “anagogical” path of the spirit and of the intellect, to say it with biblical exegesis words. This exercise had the aim to lead the mind from the visible things to the invisible ones, from the earthen ideas in their symbolic mean to the divine ones. The liberal arts were given to God to disseminate the principles of salvation that Jesus Christ had achieved with his life. The architect was entrusted with the task of translating this message in the language of symbols, translating the contents in spatial proportions and therefore in geometric figures. This work highlights the ability of transcription of the architect in designing the convent of San Francesco in Martignano (Le) and create an artifact that takes the heavenly as reference and model.
Morellato, Jody-Archeologia e astronomia: un incontro è possibile?This paper will present a brief introduction to the archaeoastronomical studies development from the beginning of the eighteenth century to 1970s. From the romantic hypotheses of its early eclectic pioneers, grouping under the name of astro-archaeology, we will follow a chronological description about the main factors, which will guide us to the modern idea of archaeoastronomy. Combining quotations and books we will be able to reconstruct a general valid idea about the topic. A history that develops not only in a linear time, but also grows in complexity and tone, involving important scholars belonging to the main scientific and humanistic fields. During two interesting moments, in the early twentieth century and especially at the turn of the 1970s it almost seemed that a dialogue would have been possible. Thanks to great institutions such as the British Academy, the Royal Society, and the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, a point of convergence – bridging together archaeology and astronomy – will be established, as well as the promotion of an active interdisciplinary research. Might the wall of separation between the arts and the sciences be overcome, at least in this specific field? Are we at the threshold of a new discipline?
Ranieri, MarcelloMonaco, MarziaGeometrie pitagoriche e circolari nella pianta del PantheonIn this preliminary work we present a coherent geometric, numeric and metric interpretation of the Pantheon layout at ground level. Similarly to what was recently observed for the Teatro Marittimo of Villa Adriana, the scheme implies the inclusion of regular polygons in a circle. In the case of the Pantheon the circle is the outer one delimiting the main body of the structure: when a regular pentagon is inscribed, the extremes of the side of the pentagon comes to coincide with the points of attachment of the portico to the cylindrical structure. In turn, when a regular (equilateral) triangle is inscribed, the extremes of its side coincide with the points of attachment of the posterior part to the cylindrical structure. Two Pythagoreans rectangles of proportion 3:4 and 5:12 consistently justify respectively the shape of the portico and that of the posterior part.
Sigismondi, Costantino-Gerberto e le 'fistulae': tubi acustici ed astronomiciGerbert of Aurillac wrote to Constantine of Fleury in 978 a letter to describe in detail the procedure to point the star nearest to the North celestial pole. A sphere is equipped with tubes to observe the celestial pole, the polar circles, the solstices and equinoxes. The use of tubes in astronomical observation is later reported by Alhazen in his treatise on optics (1009).The instrument is accurately aligned with the true pole, materialized at that epoch by a star of fifth magnitude, at the limit of naked eye visibility, and then the instrument must remain fixed. Solstices and Equinoxes are points of the orbit of the Sun, so the sphere could be used as a tool for observing the Sun and probably determine the duration of the tropical year. This sphere was much more than a didactic tool, given the long procedure for the accurate alignment. Moreover “Rogatus a pluribus” (asked by his many students), Gerbert wrote a treatise on acoustic tubes (fistulae) in 980: the Mensura Fistularum. He knew the difference in behavior of the fistulae compared with the acoustic strings, already studied by the Pythagoreans, and the treatise is intended to present the law that governs the length of the organ pipes in two octaves, compared to the corresponding acoustic strings. In terms of modern physics we know that acoustic tubes require an “end correction” to be tuned, proportional to the diameter of the tube. This proportionality is the same for every note. The mathematical law is simple, but Gerbert preferred to calculate the proportions of pipes and strings through a series of fractions linked to the number 12 and its multiples.
Spinazzé, Eva-Un'altra interpretazione sulla disposizione delle architetture sacre a Venezia e in LagunaAfter an archeoastronomical study about the orientation of the benedictine churches of the Middle Ages situated in Northern Italy, exactly in the Veneto, a new study was undertaken to understand, if the about eighty churches of medieval origin in Venice and Lagoon were built with a precise orientation, if they were aligned with the path of the Sun and / or of the Moon, or if the builders, on such a small space limited by water and sandbanks, had no other possibility as the chosen direction. This new study shows that also in Venice existed a specific orientation in the construction of the Middle Ages holy architectures. A particular method was studied in 2010 for the surveys in the urban space of Venice with the intention to get a higher precision on the final archeoastronomical calculation.
Antonello, Elio-Presentazione [del volume]-
Altamore, AldoTuscano, Maria LuisaAngelo Secchi e l'archeoastronomia. L'orologio solare di Commodo
Antonello, Elio-Su una possibile 'astronomical perspective' per lo studio dell'evoluzione umana
Balestrieri, Riccardo-L'illuminazione solare della cappella del Perdono nel Palazzo Ducale di Urbino
Bianchi, J.Felici, Anna Candida - Gaudenzi Silvia - PIacentini, Mario - Polcaro, Vito Francesco - Saggese LucioUn singolare affresco nella chiesa di San Donato a Ripacandida
Calzolari, Enrico-Ipotesi di chiesa orientata in equinoziale nell'isola Capraia (Livorno)
Castaldi, Francesco-Sopra alcuni errori di antichi e moderni
Ciarrocchi, Giovanni-Dal segno di cielo al segno di terra. La griglia topografica antica
Codebò, MarioDe Santis, Henry - Pennacchi, Ariella - Ranieri, Marcello - Torlai, LuigiAstronomia e geometria nella Cattedrale di Genova
Dallaporta, AnnamariaMarcato, LucioGli astri del 'Ramayana'
De Franceschini, MarinaVeneziano, GiuseppeAstronomia nelle Ville imperiali romane: 'Villa Jovis' a Capri
De Rosa, Agostino-La breve distanza tra Ora e Infinito: il 'Cardine Proiettivo' come strumento dell'immaginazone geometrica
Gandolfi, Giangiacomo-Le metamorfosi dell''Astrologo' da Giulio Campagnola a Matthias Gerung
Gaspani, Adriano-Astronomia e simbolismo cosmico nel sito regale medioevale irlandese di Caiseal (Cashel)
Gaudenzi, SilviaPreite Martinez, Maria - Bernardini, Maria Lina - Imperi, Francesco - De Bianchi, Silvia - Guiso, Marcella - Sammartino, Maria Pia - Sclavi, Silvia - Visco, Giovanni - Vitali, Matteo - Protano, Carmen - Ferro, Daniela - Siani, Anna Maria - Congiu, Alessandra - Stellino, Stefano - Polcaro, Vito Francesco - Ranieri, Marcello - Barbera, Maria Rosa - Pellegrino, Angelo - Panariti, Flora - Mantovani, Orietta - Marano, Aldo - Sangiorgio, Marco - Pandolfi, Fabio - Mola, Marco - Avranovich Clerici, Ermanno - Ceccarelli, Claudia - Creddo, Anna - Di Luca, Gaia - Meoni, Martina - Rosciardi, Vanessa - Carnevale, Flavio - Jankowski, Florina - Lupo, Eva - Monaco, Marzia - Scatigno, Claudia - Egidi, Barbara - Avranovich Clerici, Enrico - Gramaccioni, ChiaraStudio multidisciplinare sui mitrei di Ostia Antica
Ienna, Domenico-'Cherchez l'Anthropos' in Archeoastronomia. Note e riflessioni antropologiche introno al secolare incontro disciplinare tra Archeologia e Astronomia
Incerti, ManuelaCassani Simonetti, MatteoLa fotomodellazione per il rilievo archeoastronomico
Incerti, ManuelaPolcaro, Vito Francesco - Bònoli, FabrizioUna possibile rappresentazione della supernova 1006 negli affreschi della chiesa di Sant'Urbano alla Caffarella a Roma
Lanciano, Nicoletta-L'Horihomo nelle culture e nella didattica
Lupo, EvaGaudenzi, Silvia - Ranieri, Marcello - De Franceschini, MarinaIl Mausoleo degli Equinozi: aspetti geometrici e astronomici di uno studio preliminare
Magini, Leonardo-L'eclissi di Atreo è la più antica eclissi della tradizione occidentale? Qualche dato per un'ipotesi
Mele, Giampiero-Costellazioni di credenze condivise. Numero, struttura e orientamento nel disegno delle città medievali di nuova fondazione
Militi, AngelaBertolo, Filippo - Gaspani, AdrianoAnalisi dell'orientazione astronomica delle chiese di Randazzo (CT)
Pizzimenti, Sara-Stelle: arte e tempo nella glittica cassita
Polcaro, Andrea-'L'ottavo anno da quando Ishtar si manifestò ad Ebla'. Venere e il suo simbolismo nella città paleo siriana
Ruggieri, FrancescoCandurro, LuigiI templi e le stelle
Sclavi, SilviaGaudenzi, Silvia - Labianca, Lucilla - Polcaro, Vito Francesco - Ranieri, MarcelloNuove indagini archeoastronomiche sulla Basilica sotterranea di Porta Maggiore a Roma
Scuderi, AlbertoPolcaro, Vito FrancescoNuove scoperte al megalite di Monte Arcivocalotto nella Valle dello Jato
Sigismondi, Costantino-La lente di Giuseppe Campani alla meridiana di Jacques Cassini a Parigi e quelle usate da Francesco Bianchini nelle osservazioni di Venere a Roma
Veneziano, Giuseppe-Astronomia e simbolismo mistico nella pieve romanica di S. Maria in Cortemilia (Cuneo)
Cicilloni, Riccardo-Il paesaggio archeologico tra la fine del Neolitico e l'età del Rame: i dolmen della Sardegna-
Stiglitz, Alfonso-'parva Cynosura. Hac fidunt duce nocturna Phoenices in alto'. Archeologia e astronomia, una navigazione oltre l'orizzonte-
Monaco, MarziaCarnevale, Flavio - Gaudenzi, Silvia - Ranieri, MarcelloAnalisi geometrica di alcune strutture circolari situate presso Punta Candela, Arzachena (OT). Metodologie a confronto
Polcaro, Vito Francesco-Il merito e il metodo: la credibilità dell'Archeoastronomia, i test statistici e la 'Prova del 6'
Sirigu, Roberto-Il passato come mondo possibile-
Zedda, Mauro Peppino-Orientamento delle chiese romaniche di Sardegna, Corsica e Toscana
Ienna, Domenico-Patologie e medicina del Cielo nelle tradizioni folkloriche del Cilento (Salerno)
Balestrieri, Riccardo-L'orientamento delle chiese romaniche in Liguria. III. Chiese e assetto stradale del nucleo urbano genovese
Scuderi, AlbertoPolcaro, Vito Francesco - Maurici, FerdinandoCozzo Perciata: 'A petra unni nasci u suli'
Gandolfi, Giangiacomo-Realismo e verosimiglianza nel contenuto astronomico di opere d'arte rinascimentali. Parte I: il caso del fregio giorgionesco di Casa Marta a Castelfranco (TV)
Gandolfi, Giangiacomo-Realismo e verosimiglianza nel contenuto astronomico di opere d'arte rinascimentali. Parte II: il caso dell'Astronomia di Raffaello nella Stanza della Segnatura
Antonello, Elio-La separazione delle culture: il caso dell'astronomia 'pratica' e 'teorica' nella letteratura classica
Calzolari, Enrico-Capraia: ulteriori osservazioni al solstizio dell'estate 2013-
Codebò, Mario-Multilevel archeoastronomical pre-analysis of the Romanesque church of San Paragorio in Noli
Girotto, ValentinaRosada, GuidoIl Cielo in Terra ovvero della giusta distanza [presentazione del convegno in italiano]-
Girotto, ValentinaRosada, GuidoThe Sky on Earth or of the right distance [presentazione del convegno in inglese]-
Rosada, Guido-Il Cielo in Terra ovvero della giusta distanza [presentazione del volume]-
Rosada, Guido-L''Hybris' di 'Ikaros' ovvero della terra in cielo
Carnevale, FlavioMonaco, Marzia - Ranieri, MarcelloAnalisi geometrica dei circoli megalitici di 'Li Muri 8' e 'La Macciunitta 2': possibili interpretazioni metriche e numeriche
Motta, SilviaGaspani, Adriano'Il Castelliere di Monte Cala': orientamenti astronomici di un insediamento protostorico
Calzolari, Enrico-Il dolmen del Monte Freddone
Jiménez Hernández, AlejandroCarrasco Gómez, ImmaculadaArqueoastronomía y Mitraísmo. El mitreo de la Tumba del Elefante de la Necrópolis de Carmona (Sevilla, España)
Monaco, MarziaCarnevale, Flavio - Gaudenzi, SilviaIl tempio di 'Portunus' nel Foro Boaio in Roma: analisi geometrica della pianta e orientamento
Incerti, Manuela-Il monastero di San Michele in Bosco a Bologna: gli orientamenti e le possibili ragioni
Balestrieri, Riccardo-L'orientamento delle chiese romaniche in Liguria. IV. Strade e cattedrali
Codebò, MarioDe Santis, Henry - Frosini, AgostinoMetodi nautico e JD in archeoastronomia
De Franceschini, MarinaVeneziano, GiuseppeArcheoastronomia nel Mausoleo di Adriano (Castel Sant'Angelo, Roma)
Scuderi, AlbertoVitale, Francesco - Tusa, Sebastiano - Polcaro, Vito Francesco - Scuderi, Rossana - Maurici, Ferdinando - Leone, IsabellaIl Pulpito del Re
Bertarione, Stella VittoriaMagli, GiulioDalla Terra al Cielo nel segno di Augusto. L'individuazione dell'orientamento astronomico di 'Augusta Praetoria Salassorum' (Aosta)
Chiarini, Gioachino-La stella a sei punte e i calendari mitraico e cristiano
Antonello, ElioFontana, SilvanaAstronomia culturale e psiche umana
Asolati, Michele-Flavio Costantino reggitore della ruota zodiacale
Gandolfi, Giangiacomo-L'Eclissi e l'Orbe Magno del Leone: l'affresco astrologico del Duomo di Montagnana come profezia anti-turca
Saccocci, Andrea-Una spada contro il tiranno: la cometa nell'iconografia dei Carraresi, Signori di Padova (1337-1405)
Dallaporta, AnnamariaMarcato, LucioIl dio Shiva e i suoi legami con gli astri
Monteleone, Cosimo-Le regole geometriche del cielo e la rivincita astronomica di Jai Singh II
Lanciano, Nicoletta-Un manufatto ligneo del 1700 conservato al Museo Polironiano di San Benedetto Po (Mantova): questioni critiche e indicazioni per il restauro e la musealizzazione
Castaldi, Francesco-Huygens e un'applicazione a un modello copernicano
Frison, Carlo-Carta archeoastronomica di Padova protostorica
Polcaro, Vito Francesco-Tradizioni megalitiche: il folklore associato ad alcuni megaliti dell'Italia Meridionale
Spinazzé, Eva-Un santo, una Pasqua e un lunistizio a Saint-Maurice D'Agaune
Zoia, Giorgio-'Ad onta delle stelle fa carole intorno al sole'. Costellazioni armoniche di celestiali sonorità
Antonello, Elio-Foreword-
Orlando, Andrea-Preface-
Tusa, Sebastiano-Archaeoastronomy in Sicilian PrehistoryIn this paper I present a report on archaeoastronomy’s studies conducted in the late twentieth century on some Sicilian monuments of prehistoric times. Moreover I present some considerations on the Serraglio area in Pantelleria, a place that could have an interesting archaeoastronomical valence. The studies on the Sicilian prehistoric monuments have been conducted together with distinguished colleagues such Giorgia Foderà Serious [Serio!] and Michael Hoskin (Tusa et al. 1992; Foderà Serious [Serio!] and Tusa 2001). These studies have focused on the Copper Age rock-cut tombs (4th–3rd millennia BC), the pseudo-megalithic funerary epigeic structures (end of 3rd–beginning of 2nd millennia BC), the pseudo-dolmen (final III–beginning II millennia BC) and the Sesi of Pantelleria (first half of the second millennium BC) in Sicily. The Serraglio valley in Pantelleria is very attractive because on it were identified a system of alignments made up of several large boulders fixed vertically to the ground. These ‘menhirs’ will be protagonists of a future multidisciplinary study.
Maurici, FerdinandoPolcaro, Vito Francesco - Scuderi, AlbertoThe 'Campanari': Big Artificially Pierced and Astronomically Oriented Rocks in the South Territory of Monte Iato (Sicily)In Western Sicily, in the province of Palermo, within the municipal borders of the towns of San Cipirello and Monreale, there are two large rocks with artificial holes, bot locally named “Campanaru” (i.e. “Bell Tower”) at less than 8 km away from each other. One of these rocks is still existing and visible from far away. A lightning destroyed the second one in 1968 or a few years later. Both holes are undoubtedly artificial and astronomically oriented with extreme accuracy. The rock still existing on Monte Arcivocalotto has its hole aligned with the sunrise of the winter solstice, while the collapsed one, documented by a photo, by oral testimonies and existing remains, is sited on the Cozzo Perciata hill and had its hole axis exactly oriented at the sunrise of the summer solstice. For the latter perforated rock still exists the tradition that put in relation the sunrise into the hole at the summer solstice with the start of harvesting works which traditionally begin on a date close to the end of June. An Eneolithic/Early Bronze Age settlement is archaeologically well attested at the Monte Arcivocalotto site. Both from Cozzo Perciata and from Monte Arcivocalotto, Pizzo Pietralunga is clearly visible. This is an outstanding, insulated geological structure, on whose base is an Eneolithic/Early Bronze Age settlement, whose materials would indicate a cultic character attendance and/or an exchange site of the local populations. Also in close proximity of the Cozzo Perciata perforated rock are abundant fragments of pottery dating back to the Eneolithic and the Early Bronze Age, while a pseudo-tholos tomb with dromos was found at a few hundred meters. The fact that in this area there are two coeval and similar monuments (artificially perforated rocks) with different and complementary (winter and summer) solstice alignments seems to indicate that here, between the Eneolithic and the Early Bronze Age, a civilization has developed that had a solar calendar and developed a simple but very effective technology to materialize it. Other megalithic monuments, dating to the same period and showing astonishing hierophanies at the solstices sunrise, as the so-called “King’s Pulpit” in the nearby park of the “Ficuzza Forest” and others, were found in the same geographic area.
Orlando, AndreaTanasi, DavideThe First Archaeoastronomical Study of the Maltese Temple of Borġ In-NadurThe Maltese island has megalithic temples of extraordinary interest for archaeoastronomy. In literature we find different works that involve most of its archaeological sites. The temple of Borġ in-Nadur, set on the top of a hill by the Marsaxlokk Bay in southern Malta, is less well known than the rest of the others, even though it started off as a major attraction for grand tourists and travellers in the Early Modern and Colonial periods. It was explored in the second half of the 1920s by a team of British archaeologists, led by Margaret Murray, who gradually uncovered the ruins of typical Maltese megalithic temple dated to the 3rd millennium BC. In 2011 the efforts of an international team of scholars brought to the publication of a general reassessment of the evidences about the temple of Borġ in-Nadur and the artifacts collected during its exploration, emphasizing its importance for the Maltese Temple Period. The new picture that emerged has reactivate the research around the Borġ in-Nadur temple attracting for the first time the interest of scholars in archaeoastronomy. The archaeoastronomical study of the Borġ in-Nadur’s archaeological site is the first of its kind, as the archaeological remains were put into evidence in 2010, and pays particular attention to the temple. At the moment it is difficult to determine the exact plan of the entire temple, and therefore its axes, but the apsidal building and the main entrance are quite intact. Although this research is at its early stage of development, with regards to archaeoastronomical issues and features related with the temple of Borġ in-Nadur some preliminary considerations can be put forth.
Lanciano, NicolettaCicciarelli, EleonoraThe Criticisms of Claudius Ptolemy to Marinus of Tyre in the 'Geographia' and the Geographical Data of the Meridian Line of St. Nicholas in Arenis, Catania (Sicily)The study presented was carried out as part of a larger project on ancient Geography and in particular on the geographical data of Claudius Ptolemy, directed to the criticisms that Ptolemy addresses to Marinus of Tyre. Ptolemy collects data provided by Marinus, such as the correspondence of 500 stadia for each Earth maximum circle degree, he uses the geographical methods used by Marinus, but criticises Marinus’ cylindrical maps and making new ones, and he criticises the way of processing the observational data. Ptolemy’s calculations are published, and the discussion arising from them is discussed, concerning the use of the cited stellar coordinates by considering the Precession and the coordinates of the geographic locations to which the data of the stellar astronomical observations (Tyre, Rhodes, Alexandria). In addition, a link is proposed between the geographical problems of Ptolemy and the reading of the great Meridian tangent of St. Nicholas in Arenis in the Benedictine complex in Catania, and of some of the geographical data reported thereon.
Orlando, AndreaGori, DavideArchaeoastronomical Analysis of the Temple of Diana to Cefalù (Sicily)The so-called 'Temple of Diana' is situated on the Rock of Cefalù, that dominates the namesake fishing village in the northern coast of Sicily. The megalithic temple has a main entrance direct to the West, through which starts a corridor leading to the rocky cistern characterized by a dolmenic coverage. After the first drawings and reliefs between ’700 and ’800, respectively of Jean Houel and George Nott, the first official archaeological excavations were made by Pirro Marconi in the first half of the twentieth century. These excavations allowed to acquire more informations about the age of the temple and the cistern. With this study we present the first complete archaeoastronomical analysis of the building, allowing to find out that the megalithic architecture is a real Sun temple. The front door of the temple is indeed oriented to the point where the Sun sets at the equinoxes. This finding suggests that in these periods of the year the solar hierophany most likely invited to come inside the temple to reach the cistern, where they carried cults and rituals related to water. This study propone to identify the temple as an Artemision. The study made it possible to realize the first 3D relief of the temple also, suggesting a new process for the protection and enhancement of the archaeological site.
Hannah, RobertMagli, Giulio - Orlando, AndreaNew Insights on the Akragas’ Complex of Demeter and Persephone: The Role of the MoonWe present here in details the results obtained - within a campaign held in August 2015, aimed at a complete re-evaluation of the temples of Akragas - on the Temple of Demeter and Persephone. This temple, built on the eastern slopes of the Athena Rock, belongs to the final phase of the Archaic period (480–470 BC) and is traditionally attributed to the Eleusinian divinities. The archaeoastronomical analysis hints at a connection with the Moon and opens up new perspectives in the problem of the attribution of the temple. In fact, the eastern front yields a declination very close to −27°, and therefore the building is one of the rare examples of Greek temples which is not oriented within the arc of the rising sun. Furthermore, the western front - which looks towards the Akragas acropolis - yields a declination very close to that of the Moon at the maximal northern standstill. A vast, artificial esplanade was built on this side and was very probably the place where nocturnal processions gathered after ascending to the temple.
Monaco, MarziaCarnevale, Flavio - Ranieri, MarcelloA Study on the Orientation of Greek TheatresThis study on the orientation of Greek theatres has been performed measuring on satellite images the azimuth of a sample of 84 theatres divided in three geographical groups (Magna Grecia and Sicily, Mainland Greece and Greek theatres elsewhere). Comparison with the values that can be found in literature (achieved on place with the compass, often without taking into account the magnetic deviation, or derived from archaeological plans) shows that measures performed on satellite images prove to be more reliable. The main purpose was to determine whether Greek theatres present any preferential orientation and, when possible, to investigate the reasons. From our study a preference for a Southern orientation clearly appears. Using SunCalc we have considered the impact of the solar exposure on the South-facing theatre of Catina in Sicily. The most probable explanation is that a southern orientation allows the maximum natural lighting and warming for the cavea over the whole day during all the seasons of the year.
Orlando, Andrea-Argimusco: Cartography, Archaeology and AstronomyArgimusco is a district in the neighborhood of the medieval city of Montalbano Elicona, in northern Sicily. It is a plateau, a suggestive naturalistic area that is near to many interesting archaeological sites, like Rocca San Marco and Sperlinga, whose origins date back respectively to the Paleolithic and Mesolithic Age (Brea in La Sicilia prima dei Greci, Il Saggiatore, Milano, 1958; Cavalier Il riparo della Sperlinga di S. Basilio (Novara di Sicilia), in Bullettino di Paletnologia Italiana, Roma, pp. 7–76, 1971). The Argimusco’s plateau has natural rock formations featuring anthropomorphic and zoomorphic forms. It is assumed that the entire area had been used since the prehistoric times as a place of worship and ritual use, and, according to some sicilian scholars, it could be a sort of natural sanctuary (Pantano in Megaliti di Sicilia, Edizioni Fotocolor, Patti, 1994; Todaro in Alla ricerca di Abaceno, Armando Siciliano Editore, Messina, 1992). Unfortunately, official archaeological excavations were never made on the Argimusco’s plateau, but, from several surveys, lithic and pottery fragments have emerged ranging from the prehistoric age to the late medieval period. Argimusco appears to be a good site for the observation of the sky and of celestial phenomena (Orlando Archaeoastronomy in Sicily: Megaliths and Rocky Sites, in The Materiality of the Sky, Sophia Centre Press, 2016). In this paper I present the results of a 6 years of study of this area, and I propose a possible calendar based on the eastern horizon profile characteristics with Rocca Novara that acts as an equinox indicator.
Antonello, Elio-The Palaeolithic SkySome results of sky simulations for the Palaeolithic epoch regarding stars and constellations are presented. A conservative estimate of the precision of the computed stellar coordinates is several arcminutes. Possible practical applications of such simulations should be seen in the context of collaborations among humanistic and scientific disciplines in the field of prehistoric archaeology.
Guglielmino, Salvo L.Cipolla, Paolo B. - Rizzo Giudice, InnocenzaAstronomy in the Odyssey: The 'Status Quaestionis'Homeric poems, other than being the first literary record of the ancient Greek civilization, represent a rich source of information about the “scientific” knowledge of Greeks during the Archaic period. In the Iliad and in the Odyssey, whose redaction dates back to the VIII century BC, there are mentions of several heavenly bodies: the Sun and the Moon, the planet Venus, some stars, constellations (Boötes, Ursa Major and Orion) and asterisms (Pleiades and Hyades). Hence, the Homeric epos is an important evidence for archaeoastronomical studies dealing with civilizations that arose in the Mediterranean basin, in particular ancient Greece. However, few scholars have addressed so far a systematic review of the Homeric passages that include astronomical references, on the one hand because of little interest in such kind of problems in philological studies, on the other hand since astronomical expertise is required to support the analysis. By virtue of the subject matter of the story itself - the nostos of Odysseus back to Ithaca - the Odyssey contains the majority of the passages concerning the description of celestial bodies and phenomena. This supports indications, obtained independently, that during the pre-Homeric period stars had already been extensively used as a reference for navigation, in order to find and follow the route during the long crossings of the Mediterranean sea. In the present contribution we describe the state of the art of scientific and philological research concerning the passages of the Odyssey where astronomical knowledge of that time is reflected. Some of them have been interpreted as the description of celestial events that really occurred. This has given rise to a lively discussion among the scientific community on the possibility to assign a date to the historical facts that were recounted by Homer, in the first place the Trojan War, based on the astronomical phenomena that were observed in the Mediterranean at the end of the II millennium BC. Finally, we discuss new prospects for archaeoastronomical research on the Homeric epic.
Bonacci, Lucia-'Ratio Siderum' in Pliny the Elder: Pleiades, Light and WheatThe story of the 'seven sisters', the brightest star visible to the naked eye and forming the Pleiades constellation, has always fascinated cultures, more or less close to us, for the mythological stories related to them and for the influence they have had in the construction of temples of the ancient world (to name a few examples, the temple of Asklepios at Epidaurus and that of Bacchus in Athens), oriented according to their rise or their set. As their importance in the Roman world? In this regard, this article will be highlight, through the eighteenth book of Pliny the Elder dedicated to farm work, the ratio siderum of this constellation and its relationship with the light and the sacred, especially in relation to the cereal growing.
Dallaporta, AnnamariaMarcato, LucioThe Figure of the Astrologer in Ancient India: A Practice Verging on the SacredThe chapter II of the 'Brihatsamhita', an astrology and divination treatise of the 6th century AD, illustrates the figure and the challenging ‘profession’ of the astrologer. Backlit a clash arises since the astrologer operated in a context of sacredness considered from Brahmins their exclusive field. That complicated the relations between the two categories particularly at the time of remuneration. According to the 'Brihatsamhita', the astrologer had to be handsome, intelligent, of good birth, well versed in the subject and have the necessary competence. His duty was to identify and interpret the heavenly indications to gain possible profits. For this reason, a king who disdained the services of the astrologer would inevitably be dogged by misfortune. Aside from the risks and misunderstanding implied in the profession, being a good astrologer would bring the maximum reward possible: certainly, at his death he would attain salvation.
Gandolfi, Giangiacomo-The Star of the Sibyl: Analysis and History of a Late Medieval Illustrated ProphecyMisinterpreted and overlooked in its astrological meaning for a long time, the so-called “caricature of the Emperor and the Pope” of the late XVth century is actually a complex stratification of joachimist traditions and at the same time an extraordinary example of how an anonymous and ambiguous engraving imbued with apocalypticism could have left a mark on the history of culture, spreading and adapting across the centuries. I propose here an astronomical and textual analysis, trying to identify the sources of the prophecy and the nature of the star represented on the basis of the earliest german and venetian versions. As a result of the inquiry I trace an evolutionary path strictly connected to the myth of the Tiburtine Sibyl that reveals a complicated and muddy transmission between Bohemia, Venice and Germany and involves personalities such as Johannes Capistranus, Cornelius Gemma and Tycho Brahe. The persistent resurgence of the prophecy at different times and in association to astrology, testifies not only its political role in nationalistic and religious propaganda, but even a symbiotic relationship between cosmologic research and chiliastic concerns at the threshold of the Scientific Revolution.
Adamo, Angelo-STARing the Sky in the Face: Recognizing the Constellations in a Sky Which Does not Have AnyThe analysis described here attempts to estimate the range within which we use our tendency to see a familiar shape in a disordered pattern (Pareidolia). The study starts with the proof that the stars visible to the naked eye are arranged following a Poisson distribution, a concept that I use to understand why, in the works of several artists, the stars appear so clustered that they form an excess in the number of possible constellations. This analysis should be considered only preliminary and will be completed soon by further investigation which I describe at the end of this paper.
Chirri, MaurizioLombardi, Livia - Ruggiero, Ludovica - Fabrizi, LucillaThe App STAR: An Important Instrument for Creating the First Spreading Thematic Museum on the Archaeoastronomy in RomeSTAR is an important instrument developed for creating the first spreading thematic museum dedicated to the archaeoastronomy in Rome. This is the first italian App for smartphone and tablet able to guide the tourist on a journey to discover mithraea, sundials and Astronomy related places of the Capital. Although they attract millions of tourists, the astronomical significance of these sites is not valorized in most cases. For these reasons, STAR offers the opportunity to discover an original and unconventional side of Rome through an innovative technological support. This App aims to invite the foreign tourist as well as the Roman citizen in rediscovering the city, the neophyte as well as the expert of this topic. With STAR it is possible to personalize the itinerary, and to choose the number and type of sites to visit. At present, the App STAR includes ten specific astronomical sites. To communicate contents with pathos, the App reveals the original appearance of the sites and brings to light hidden details by using the virtual augmented reality. Virtual reconstructions and augmented reality were developed for two sites, the Horologium Augusti in Campo Marzio and the Basilica di S. Maria degli Angeli. Overall, this contribution gives added value for museological and museographical areas.
Antonello, Elio-Presentazione [del volume]-
Antonello, Elio-Astronomia, paleoclimatologia ed evoluzione umanaIn the last two decades, several anthropologists have discussed the hypothesis of the possible dependence of human evolution on the habitat variations related to the long-term oscillations of climate. Since the paleoclimatologists generally agree about the orbital forcing, that is, the variations of the orbital parameters of the Earth have triggered such climate oscillations, we should conclude that, if the hypothesis is correct, the characteristics of our specie depend also on the conditions imposed by ‘astronomy’. In other words, astronomy is an essential ingredient for understanding our ‘physiological’ characteristics and not just our culture. Of course, the orbital forcing is triggering also presently the changes and therefore must be taken into account in the attempt to predict the future of the climate.
Bartolini, SimoneDi Gesualdo, FedericoSolar and cosmological symbolism and astronomical orientations of Romanesque churches in TuscanyRomanesque art and architecture are pervaded of solar symbols: for example, in Christian churches, the apse represents the spiritual fulcrum of the building and its sacredness is often emphasized by a peculiar illumination. Although many studies indicate that Romanesque churches were built with specific orientations, conferring a symbolic connotation to the building itself, a systematic work on the orientation of Romanesque churches in the ancient dioceses of Tuscany is still lacking. In this paper, we report the study on the orientation of Romanesque churches located in the territory of Tuscany based on their importance and on the conservation of original architectural elements. The detailed analysis of the location of churches showed that most of them are directed toward the sunrise. Furthermore, they can be categorized into three main groups based on a specific orientation: 1) toward the solstices, 2) toward the local equinoctial sunrise or the sunrise of the Easter period 3) towards the East-southeast and the East -northeast ('Versus Solem Orientem'). Our investigation proposes a solar symbolism associated with the orientation of the churches we examined. In the first group, the position of the sacred buildings suggests a connection with the solstices: these events were considered by the ancient to be the heaven’s gates, favourable astronomical moments for the descent of the angels of God to Earth. In the second group, the orientation is probably linked with the Easter Sunday or there might be a connection with the Sol Aequinoctialis, whose rays illuminated the 'Sancta Sanctorum' of the Solomon’s Temple, the holy temple in ancient Jerusalem. Finally, in the third group the direction towards the local sunrise, 'Versus Solem Orientem' suggests a link with the direction of prayer, towards Jerusalem, which was a very common practice in medieval architecture.
Calabresi, MassimoRefice, PaolaLettura astronomica del ciclo dipinto nel sogno di Costantino di Piero della FrancescaThis work shows a comparison between the tale of Eusebio di Cesarea’s dream, described in the Eusebius of Caesarea’s 'Vita Constantini', and the astronomical perspectives found in the painting. Everything seems to coincide with the source: the clear indication of the north through the North Star; the evidence that who observes the painting is on an imaginary north-south line; the angel – a cross in his hand – who seems to enter the painting from south west; the layout of the recognizable constellations, showing the October sky right after sunset. Also, taking advantage of the scaffolds put up on the occasion of the fresco’s cleaning (on January – March 2016), an examination has been carried out on how Piero della Francesca represented the stars according to their different brightness. We have compared the main stars of two of the constellations more likely identified, with the magnitudes reported in the 'Almagest', finding a good accordance. Therefore, whether Piero has painted the sky by a direct observation, or in the event he used a map at his disposal or the 'Almagest' itself, his representation is fitting to the real sky, at least for the aim of the artist who, in his painting, aims at indicating the direction of the north, and at placing the observer on the meridian.
Chirri, MaurizioCeddia, Michele - Ercoles, Isabella - Manzi, GiorgioDifferenze dei gradi iniziatici e delle corrispondenti influenze planetarie, nei mitrei di Santa Prisca in Roma e del Felicissimo in Ostia-
Codebò, MarioFourlis, AthanasiosSirius was already whiteCommonly, the adjective 'ὑπόκιρρος', that Ptolemy used for only six different stars in his Almagest and for only three stars in his Tetrabiblos, is translated “reddish”. Since these stars have very different colours at the present, modern astronomers felt to be compelled to try to explain why, according to Ptolemy, Sirius should have been “reddish” instead of white (as it really is), and they presented several hypotheses. Here we propose: 1) a “strong” hypothesis that the adjective 'ὑπόκιρρος' means “yellowish”; 2) a “weak” hypothesis that 'ὑπόκιρρος' means “iridescent”; 3) the witness written in the Avestā, the holy book of the Zoroastrian religion, that the colour of Sirius before Ptolemy was white.
Colona, Paolo-The astronomical origin of numbers' symbolismWe propose a quantitative method for measuring the cultural importance of numbers. It consists in measuring their occurrence in a specific cultural context and then normalizing the outcome for the Benford’s law. We give a provisional estimate of the “numerological signature” for the Western culture as a whole and point out that it’s possible to establish the numerological signature also for much more specific targets. We note that carrying out such a work for mythological or religious canons or single literary works from the past could guarantee a wealth of in-depth information about their origin and eventual mutual influences. We then show that the majority of the most important numbers in our culture have an astronomical derivation and we report our interpretation as to their origin: 7 from the number of the planets; 12 from the entire lunations in a solar year; 72 as 1/5 of 360, being 5 the difference between 365 and 360; 108 as the least common multiple between 12 and 27, capable to merge solar and lunar Zodiac. A note about frequent fortuitous coincidences in astronomical numerology and of a possible discovery of symbolic use of 72 and 108 in Dante’s 'Divina Commedia' is also provided.
Conventi, MartaDe Santis, HenryMisurare la terra secondo il cielo: il caso di 'Albingaunum'The astronomical measurements carried out on the generating axes of the Albingaunum urban system, show that, like for many other Roman cities, astronomical and topographic criteria have been combined, at the foundation act, in order to constitute a coherent and unitary urban planning.
Dallaporta, AnnamariaMarcato, LucioA proposito della cometa di AkbarAs written in the 'Akbarnama' (1589-1596), the indian Moghul emperor Akbar saw in Amber the comet C/1577 V1 also observed and described by Tycho Brahe. That event was normally believed unauspicious but being Akbar in favour with God the comet brought to India only positive effects. The sanscrit word for comets, 'ketu', became towards the 6th century B.C. the name of their embodiment also, a planetary deity generally depicted as a snake body. In fact the myth has it that Ketu was a black snake who shaped up from the Mrityu’s sigh. In the 'Akbarnama' comet episode, we can perceive the supremacy of Allah, Akbar protector, over Ketu, 'hindu' comets deity and therefore over the whole indian 'pantheon'.
Gandolfi, Giangiacomo-Gli emisferi celesti della Sagrestia Vecchia a San Lorenzo e della Cappella dei Pazzi a Santa Croce: una rivalutazione astrologica. Parte IAfter 30 years since the historical publication of the analysis by Forti, Lapi Ballerini, Monsignori Fossi and Ranfagni (1987), I offer a careful re-examination of the two famous florentine starry vaults of the early Renaissance, taking into account the recent restoration of the hemisphere of the Pazzi Chapel and the almost coeval maps drawn by Paolo Dal Pozzo Toscanelli for his studies of comets in 1456 (Halley) and 1457. The authorship by the Tuscan cosmographer is confirmed in the Sagrestia Vecchia on the basis of a comparison among a sample of stars from the dome, Toscanelli’s maps and Ptolemy’s Catalogue. The Pazzi Chapel instead, reveals on close inspection to be a clumsy, derivative later work. While the double date proposed in 1987, the enigmatic 4/5 july 1442, still remains astronomically the most probable, I will show that the exactness of the planetary positions have been overestimated, unfairly provoking a lack of attention for other candidate dates, more astrologically meaningful if not depicted with satisfying correctness. Finally, relying indeed on the astrological techniques and interests of the time, I propose to assess the 1442 and the 1439 most probable dates following the very appropriate line of reasoning introduced by Dieter Blume (2000), i.e. considering the congruence of the horoscope with principles and rules of astral divination as well as with the political situation in Florence and with the cultural needs of the clients.
Lanciano, Nicoletta-Lettura critica dei metodi di Eratostene e Posidonio per stimare il meridiano terrestre, nell'opera di CleomedeWe got the complete text of Cleomedes 'De motu Circulari Corporum Caelestium' containing two methods for measuring the Earth meridian using an astronomical and a geometrical approach, one by Erathostenes and the other by Posidonius. Probably, Cleomedes is the more ancient author who explains in detail the Erathostenes method based on shadows at different latitudes on Earth. Instead, the method by Posidonius utilizes the observation of some stars. I analyse some problems about the ancient measurements, the methods used and the values found, that are not always in accordance with the historical vulgate.
Motta, SilviaGaspani, AdrianoAn archaeoastronomical investigation on the Templar churches built in Piedmont, in the North West of ItalyThe focus of this work is to define the methodology of planning and of construction of the Templar churches built in Piedmont, in the North West of Italy, in order to define the criteria of the astronomical orientations and of the geometry used by the ‘masters of work’ of the Templar Order in drafting the project. One of the most important road travelled by the pilgrims coming from the Northern Europe to Rome was the ‘Via Francigena’ or ‘Romea’, that connected the main places of spirituality of the time, and that consisted of a bundle of routes. A branch descended from the Great St. Bernard, passed through Aosta, Ivrea, Santhia, Vercelli and continued to Pavia and central Italy to reach Rome. The ‘Via Liburnasca’ linked Turin and hence the ‘Passi’ of the Val Susa (Moncenisio and Monginevro) with Vercelli, a town crossed by the most well-known branch of the Via Francigena. In this work we present the results of our statistical analysis of the architectural alignments of a group of Templar churches located in Piedmont, someone lying along the Via Liburnasca, measured ‘in situ’ by the authors in the spring and summer 2015. Subsequently an appropriate statistical study was carried out in order to infer their distribution function with the aim to perform an appropriate archaeoastronomical analysis. Several statistical methods have been employed. Basic tests have been performed with automatic data classification, in order to find natural clusters. The K-means and the Circular K-means (CK-means), have been tested. We have used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to analyze the orientation data distributions. The architectural alignments that we measured in two Templar churches, applying a rigorous methodology, reveal that the use of astronomical references at the horizon represents the most viable rationale and outlines the existence of orientation patterns that the Templar Knights used for planning their churches, which can be connected with the ‘Equinoctial Cycle’ religious calendar, and the ‘Solstice Cycle’ religious calendar. At present the research is still in progress.
Orlando, AndreaVeca, CarloGli orientamenti delle tombe a pozzetto della necropoli protostorica di Thapsos (Siracusa): analisi preliminareIn Sicily the research on the astronomical orientation of monuments, megaliths and funerary hypogea during prehistory still represents a scarcely explored field (Orlando 2015, 2016, 2017). The first and only study dedicated to this theme (Tusa, Foderà Serio 2001) covered the multi-cameral shaft tombs of the Copper Age (IV-III millennium BC), usually excavated on flat rocky terraces in the south-western part of the island. In particular, in the Eneolythic necropoleis of Roccazzo (Trapani) and Tranchina (Agrigento), the measured azimuth values indicate that the tombs orientations of the two sites are part of the typical widespread model in the Mediterranean, which often consider prehistoric sepulchres oriented between the rising of the Sun and its maximum height. The problem is the existence of intentional orientation in the positioning of the tombs during the Early Bronze Age (late III/II millennium BC), where the tombs, no longer in the well, appear in a hypogeum chamber, excavated on slopes or on almost vertical walls and therefore receive a strong environmental conditioning. However, it cannot be ruled out that some intentionality has been in the choice of the wall to be drilled according to orientation. In the investigated contexts of the Early Bronze Age (Cava Lazzaro and Castelluccio), the volunteering of the location is not always clear, with an apparent loss of cell orientation intensity, with some exceptions (Contrada Paolina) (Procelli 1981). New and significant indications could be derived from the study of the orientations for the tombs of the Thapsos necropoleis (Veca 2016), the eponymous site that represents entirely the manifestations of the Middle Bronze Age, a phase of the Sicilian prehistory not considered from the pioneering studies mentioned above. The measured orientations make it possible to state that the cell of the tombs in the well was excavated in the vast majority of cases in such a way that the axis of the opening (from inside to the outside) falls into the 1st (0°-90°) and in the 2nd quadrant (90°-180°). The study thus opens new scenarios for funeral rituals and worship needs, highlighting a discontinuity with the previous Castelluccio culture of the Early Bronze Age.
Orlando, AndreaPalio, Orazio - Turco, MariaAnalisi archeoastronomica della spirale megalitica di Balze Soprane (Bronte, CT) nell'area nord-occidentale dell'EtnaThe so-called megalithic spiral of Balze Soprane district (Bronte), located on the northwest side of the Mount Etna, is one of the unique monuments of this area on the volcano slopes. Already a subject of field research at the end of the 1980s (Consoli 1988-89), the structure was subjected to a new research in 2015 for the realization of a new survey (Palio and Turco 2015a, 2015b). According to the construction technique, it can be stated that the monument can be linked to the megalithic architecture attested in Sicily between the end of the Copper Age and the Bronze Age (the second half of the III millennium BC). For the purpose of this study it is interesting to note that in Sicily there are other fully constructed structures with vertical slabs that form dolmen. We can recall those with curved planes, such as Cava dei Servi (Di Stefano 1984) or Cava Lazzaro (Small 2007) structures, or those with rectangular plan, which are more common in various areas of Sicily, both eastern and central. The megalithic construction of Balze Soprane, apparently due to this same type of substrate, does not seem to be related to the funerary sphere, given the lack of a proper funerary room and a direct path to it from the outside. The spiral shape and the presence of an enclosed area around it seem more appropriate to a ritual destination, possibly linked to initiatory ceremonies, given the complex path of access to the central environment, and the fact that it constitutes a net element of separation from the surrounding space. The study of the orientation of the megalithic structure of Balze Soprane is part of a large and organic scientific research project that has involved the whole Sicilian territory in recent years (Orlando 2016, 2017). The only archaeoastronomical studies of the last century took into consideration the Sesi di Pantelleria (Tusa et al. 1992) and the Sicilian ritual architecture from IV to II millennium BC (Tusa and Foderà Serio 2001). And just the study of prehistoric monuments (pseudo-dolmenic structures, grotesque tombs with dolmenic corridor, cockpit tombs, and grotesque tombs) of this last work showed how such buildings were constructed with intentional orientations. The results of the archaeoastronomical study of the megalithic spiral of Balze Soprane (Bronte) seems to confirm the thesis of the ritual or cult value of the megalithic structure.
Rosada, Guido-'Ut ad orientem spectet'The sense or practical meaning of direction in the sources, especially in the Latin ones, is what I want to gather and discuss in this paper, looking in particular at the very special relationship that has always been established between the man on earth and the nomos of the stars or, in any case, of the sky. A desired and looked for relation, however, often contradicted by the 'natura soli', which becomes antagonist to the 'natura caeli'. So it happens for example when tracing the agrarian organisation, where the 'regula' or rule (deriving, as we know, from rex, which is the “basis also of the later directum, from where our modern ‘right’ originates”) is the ‘set square’ required to mark straight lines on the ground. These lines, as for the orientation, can certainly follow the astronomical indication of the 'hora sexta' (the sixth hour, which is noon for us), suggested by the written rule; but they are lines which most of the times take into account the features of the earth and conform to them. In any case the obtained determination of the fines is then safeguarded by the sacred ('regere fines'), which also oversees the rectitudo of the human agere (to the point that it has become a common saying the Latin expression of 'recta regione deflectere', i.e. move away from the right path).
Scuderi, AlbertoPolcaro, Vito FrancescoNew evidences of solstice alignments of prehistoric sites in Western SicilyFollowing the reports of local scholars, we verified the presence of possible solstice hierophanies in two prehistoric caves sited in Western Sicily. The first one is the so-called “Grotta di Polifemo”, located near the city of Trapani, on the coast of the territory of Erice. On the left half of this cave, is a pictogram in red ocher, representing a sort of labyrinth, discovered in 1986 and dated by the archaeologist Sebastiano Tusa to 3000 BC. It consists of six concentric and roughly elliptical volutes, for a maximum diameter of 30 cm. On June 21 st 2016, we verified that, less than a minute before sunset, the Sun, overlooking the rocky ridge located on line of sight connecting the cave to the sea horizon, directly illuminates the pictogram. The second site that we have examined is the “Grotta dei Cavalli”, at a short distance from Cala Mancina in San Vito lo Capo municipality. The material found in the cave dates the use of the site to the Final Eneolithic. In this cave, a pictorial complex consisting of several elements painted in red has been identified in an interior room. One of these pictograms seems to indicate a solar symbol. An inspection carried out on June 21 st 2017 has indeed shown that at the precise time when the Sun is about to set, its red light, that penetrates into the cave to a depth of about 78 meters, illuminates the pictogram that we had supposed to represent the Sun. Furthermore, at the same time when the Sun touches this pictogram, it also illuminates a sort of basin artificially carved on the rock, near which there are numerous cupmarks. These evidences suggest the significance (cosmological as well as practical/calendrical) of the solstitial directions since very ancient times in Western Sicily.
Spinazzé, Eva-Baptisteries and baptismal fonts: interpretation of the orientation of early Christian and medieval baptisteries in Friuli (North-East of Italy). The case of AquileiaThe author examines the orientation of Early Christian medieval baptisteries and their churches located in south-central Friuli (in northeastern Italy; the only five still existing) regarding their historical, liturgical, architectural and archaeoastronomical significance. Here, the Early Christian baptistery of the basilica of Aquileia is discussed in detail for its particular position (in front of the façade and in line with the axis of the church) that emphasizes the path that the catechumen fulfilled during the baptismal rite and which corresponds exactly with the written steps in the baptismal 'Catechesis' composed by the Fathers of the Church. Nevertheless, in the other baptisteries built in the Medieval times, even they show another disposition (or situated on the left or on the right of the church), the catechumen still followed the symbolic path dictated by the priest during the celebration. The research methodology consisted of a GPS survey and astronomical calculation correlated with historical sources. The patristic writings were essential for a full understanding of the meaning of the disposition of a baptistery with its church. The fundamental result was that all the baptisteries analysed show an astronomically and a liturgically determined interior path which the catechumen followed during the baptismal rite in accordance with the Catechesis: turning to the West for the renunciation to Satan and then to East to obtain Salvation.
Zavaglia, Angela Maria-Il complesso rupestre della 'Madonna della Stella' di Gravina in Puglia. Ipotesi sui riferimenti archeoastronomici nei rituali dei culti precristianiThe survey took into consideration the complex of ancient caves at the hill of Botromagno, that form an ancient rural cereal settlement ('Sidion' or 'Sìlbion', 'Silvium' during Roman age) since the Neolithic times, at the edge of a necropolis of its ancient inhabitants, the 'Peuceti'. It was in its full splendor during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. The interpretation of some documents supports the concept that the site was used for the celebration of pagan cults related to the gods of the afterlife, marriage, fertility and the cycle of the seasons. The cave complex is located on the crest of the ravine in front of the East and is proposed as a place for astronomical observation. It is possible to use the references of astronomical phenomena (stars, sun and moon motions) to determine the planning of agricultural work and the ceremonies of the year related to the cult of different gods. Furthermore, the evidence collected on the agricultural tradition of Gravina, also opens to the possibility that the combination of these elements, in some agricultural civilizations before the Roman era, have influenced the interpretation of the juxtaposition of the constellation of Virgo and Demeter.
Duglio, GiovanniSerio, SalvatoreSaluti dei rappresentanti degli Enti [Provincia di Genova e Società Astronomica Italiana]-
Codebò, Mario-Presentazione e scopi del convegno-
Hoskin, Michael-Tombe, templi e loro orientamenti: una nuova prospettiva per la Preistoria mediterranea-
Castellani, Vittorio-Misure archeoastronomiche: da Stonehenge alle Piramidi-
Foderà Serio, GiorgiaTusa, SebastianoRapporti tra morfologia ed orientamento nelle architetture rituali siciliane dal IV millennnio al II millennio a. C.-
Mannoni, TizianoBònoli, Fabrizio - Castellani, Vittorio - Hoskin, Michael - Tusa, Sebastiano - Maggi, Roberto - Vicino, Giuseppe - Del Lucchese, Angiolo - Serio, Salvatore - Colona, PaoloTavola rotonda e dibattito-
Campagnoli, EnricoCasaretto, FrancescoLe placche della necropoli di Chiavari-
Calzolari, EnricoCodebò, Mario - Serio, Salvatore - Balestrieri, Riccardo - Foderà Serio, Giorgia - Hoskin, Michael - Mannoni, Tiziano - Tusa, Sebastiano - Maggi, Roberto - Brunod, Giuseppe - Dalpasso, Anna - Vicino, GiuseppeDibattito finale-
Tokhàtyan, Karèn S.-I riflessi dell'antica conoscenza astronomica nell'arte rupestre dell'Armenia-
Herouni, Paris M.-L'osservatorio preistorico di Carahunge in Armenia-
Ranieri, Marcello-Archeo-geometria a Stonehenge-
Gaspani, Adriano-Applicazione di tecniche satellitari GPS al rilevamento planimetrico dei siti di rilevanza archeoastronomica-
Balestrieri, Riccardo-L'orientamento della tomba di Margherita di Brabante-
Dimitriadis, Giorgio-Sistemi d'annotazione temporale: coppelle. Analisi geometrica delle configurazioni-
Prestipino, Carmelo-Possibili siti di osservazione astronomica in Val Bormida-
Martini, Sergio G.-Percezione del cielo e arte parietale rupestre: problemi di metodo-
Gaietto, Pietro-Aspetti della cultura materiale e della cultura spirituale nelle scoperte dell'archeoastronomia e loro inserimento nella paletnologia-
D'Errico, Francesco-Sistemi di notazione paleolitici: il punto sulla questione-
Ruggles, Clive-Il generale e lo specifico: alcuni problemi metodologici in archeoastronomia-
Lugli, Ubaldo-Orientamento astronomico e mitologia classica-
Tosi, Maurizio-Complessità sociale, progettualità politica ed usi del firmamento-
Tusa, Sebastiano-Prospettive archeoastronomiche nella Preistoria siciliana. Nuove evidenze nel campo degli orientamenti architettonici rituali in Sicilia dal IV millennio al II millennio a.C.-
Castellani, VittorioCigna, Arrigo A.Rocca di Cavour (Piemonte): possibili evidenze topografiche di antichi riferimenti astronomici-
Brunod, Giuseppe-Il corridoio di visibilità come metodo di rilevamento di coppelle orientate astronomicamente-
Muzi, MarinaPiliarvu, DanielaLa chiesa di Madonna del Poggio de Rey in Perinaldo (IM): l'orientamento tra storia e tradizione-
Calzolari, EnricoGori, DavidePaleoastronomia megalitica comparata: Sardegna, Corsica, Liguria orientale-
Maggi, RobertoTosi, Maurizio - Codebò, Mario - Tokhàtyan, Karèn S. - Ranieri, Marcello - Balestrieri, Riccardo - Martini, Sergio - Gaietto, Pietro - D'Errico, Francesco - Lugli, Ubaldo - Tusa, Sebastiano - Calzolari, Enrico - Echasseux, Anne - Del Lucchese, Angiolo - Veneziano, Giuseppe - Gaspani, Adriano - Felolo, Luigi - Colona, Paolo - Ruggles, CliveTavola rotonda con dibattito: Proposte per una metodologia dell'archeoastronomia-
Meogrossi, Piero-Appendice I: interventi fuori convegno : La misura del cielo nella forma di Roma-
De Santis, Henry-CD-ROM con atti in formato elettronico [allegato]-
Noguera Celdrán, José Miguel-Foreword-
Antonello, Elio-Preface-
Pernigotti, Antonio Paolo-A Contribution to the Study of the Orientation of Etruscan TemplesThe aim of the present contribution is to analyse the orientation of Etruscan temples in order to understand whether they followed a certain ratio or whether they were randomly oriented. After a critical analysis of the data from azimuth measurements, an attempt is made to understand whether this ratio could depend on factors that are of ritualistic character, possibly linked to the sky and precepts of the 'Etrusca Disciplina' which are known to us. In undertaking this study, the author has decided first to give a brief summary of previous studies on the present subject. In the final section of this paper, the author presents the data (collected in a series of field visits during the year 2013) pertaining to the azimuths of Etruscan temples, and furthermore makes some comments on the data analysis and its significance.
Bagnasco Gianni, Giovanna-Notes on Etruscan Cosmology: The Case of the Tumulus of the Crosses at CerveteriThe aim of this contribution is to test the possibility of the use of cosmological principles connected with Etruscan religion, for composing an inscription which is incised on the wall of a passageway running beneath a ramp attached to the northeast side of the Tumulus of the Crosses, in the Banditaccia necropolis at Cerveteri. The ramp features a stairway leading to a flat ceremonial platform. On the basis of the letterforms the inscription may be dated to the end of the seventh or the beginning of the sixth century BCE. It is a rare example of a monumental inscription of the Orientalizing period of Etruscan Civilization. Directly beneath the inscription is a sign (siglum) formed by a cross inscribed in a circle. This sign has been recognized as the representation of the Etruscan concept of sacred space, whose crucial attributes are delimitation, division and orientation. A recent new reading of the inscription points out four theonymic elements, which recall divinities that, in the Etruscan cosmology, it may be argued, occupied the northeastern quadrant of the sky. Any amplification of this recent new reading must take into account interdisciplinary research focused on a possible relationship, in the field of archaeoastronomy, between the theonymic elements and the physical space that they occupy on the wall of the passageway, since the ramp is a crucial element of Etruscan funerary cultic practices.
Hannah, Robert-The Orchestration of Time in Ancient and Medieval BuildingsAccording to the Neoplatonist Porphyry, the followers of Mithras regarded the midsummer solstice as the point where souls descended in genesis from the heavens into this world, while at the midwinter solstice they re-entered the heavens in apogenesis. The Sun-god Mithras oversaw this migration of souls from his seat at the equinoxes, midway between the solstices. Beyond Mithraism Porphyry attributes this notion of psychic entry and exit through the solstitial points to his Platonic predecessors, Numenios and Kronios, and in some respects even back to Plato himself. This chapter examines to what extent such a philosophy or theology is discoverable also in Imperial and Late Antique Roman buildings, notably in the domed spaces of Nero’s Domus Aurea, Domitian’s Palace, the Pantheon and (their architectural descendants) the churches of Byzantium. It is found that there are grounds for seeing the pagan Imperial buildings as designed around lighting effects at the times of the equinoxes and solstices, perhaps to enable imperial hierophanies. Perhaps reflecting this aspect of Roman domed structures, a divine hierophany is undoubtedly intended to be highlighted in the later Byzantine churches, which were designed to allow a shaft of light to fall on the altar through the apse windows at those moments in the liturgy when the Holy Spirit, represented by the beam of light, was imagined as descending to sanctify the offerings presented to God by the priest in front of the altar. These architecturally orchestrated effects could be particularly significant around the times of the winter solstice and the vernal equinox, which were associated liturgically with Christmas and Easter respectively.
Polcaro, Vito FrancescoSclavi, Silvia - Gaudenzi, Silvia - Labianca, Lucilla - Ranieri, MarcelloThe So Called Neo-Pythagorean Basilica of Porta Maggiore in Rome: The Most Mysterious Roman MonumentThe underground Basilica of Porta Maggiore, accidentally discovered in 1917, is not mentioned in any classical source. All the authors who have studied the monument agree on dating it to the first half of the first century AD, independently from the assumptions made on its intended use. The Basilica is in a good state of conservation, and preserves most of its original decoration. After discussing briefly the main features of the monument, we shall examine it from an archaeoastronomical point of view, noting a very interesting feature: that at summer solstice sunset an optical path illuminates one of the scenes decorating the Basilica vault. The centrality of this hierophany will hopefully help to disentangle the many mysteries of this monument.
Carnevale, FlavioMonaco, MarziaThe Mausoleum of Santa Costanza in Rome: A Survey of the Light Phenomena Through the CenturiesThe Mausoleum of Santa Costanza is a perfect example of early Christian architecture during the late Roman Empire, when the Christian cult had just been liberalized. Located in Rome on the Via Nomentana, this circular building belongs to a monumental complex linked to the worship of the tomb of the martyr Saint Agnes, over which two basilicas were built. The oldest of the two, dated to the fourth century, was a horseshoe-shaped basilica that eventually fell into ruins. Being too large to be refurbished, in the seventh century it was replaced by the current much smaller Basilica of Sant’Agnese fuori le Mura. According to tradition, the Mausoleum was built by Constantina for herself; the daughter of the famous Emperor Constantine I. Apparently, it also hosted the remains of her sister Helena, who died in AD 360, 6 years after Constantina. The Mausoleum does not show evident astronomical alignments but the disposition of the windows in the drum, associated with other significant features of the structure, created visible light phenomena during certain days of the year that were linked to the Saint’s feast or holy days. The identification of these occurrences in the monumental complex and their variations throughout the centuries are the main focus of this study, which is based on the fundamental work by Rasch and Arbeiter (Das Mausoleum der Constantina in Rom. Philipp Von Zabern, Mainz Am Rhein, 2007) where reliable plans and architectonic reconstructions are provided. The measures of the orientations were performed on satellite images and on graphic plans, assuming the average value and considering the related standard deviation as uncertainty.
González-García, A. CésarRodríguez-Antón, Andrea - Espinosa-Espinosa, David - García Quintela, Marco V. - Belmonte Aviles, JuanEstablishing a New Order: The Orientation of Roman Towns Built in the Age of AugustusUrbanism in most areas of Western Europe occurred at the time of the Roman Empire when several hundred new towns were founded, notably under Augustus. Those towns were planned to incorporate astronomical phenomena as images of propaganda of their rulers, or to connect the city to the gods. The visual effect of the Sun rising in line with the orientation of the city at a given moment in its yearly movement was thus sought and incorporated for its ritual meaning. Special moments allegedly related to Augustus were considered, in particular Winter Solstice and Autumn Equinox.
Rodríguez-Antón, AndreaOrfila Pons, Margarita - González-García, A. César - Belmonte Aviles, JuanThe 'Uaratio' and Its Possible Use in Roman Urban Planning to Obtain Astronomical OrientationsSeveral works have tried either to demonstrate or reject the notion that the orientation of the main axis of a Roman city was deliberate since its choice might add an extra sacred dimension to the entire urban space [González-García et al. (Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 14(3):107–119, 2014; Magli (Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21(6):63–71, 2008)]. There exist ancient texts that support the hypothesis of the existence of astronomical orientations, such as those of Frontinus (De Agrimmensura, 27) or Hyginus Gromaticus (Constitutio, I). In the case that these precepts were fulfilled: how to achieve it? Besides the astronomical hypothesis, some scholars have pointed to the use of a geometrical technique: the uaratio (Orfila et al. La orientación de las estructuras ortogonales de nueva planta en época romana. De la varatio y sus variaciones. 2014). By this, the short sides of a regular triangle that are in ratios of integer numbers (for example 1:2, 2:3) are laid along the cardinal axes. In this work we present a comparison of the orientation of 81 Roman towns in the Iberian Peninsula, measured in situ, with uaratio angles with aspect ratios up to 12:12. By this exercise we want to discern whether the orientations were astronomical, purely geometrical, or if geometry could have fostered astronomical aims by using selected and well-known angles to trace lines that fitted the desired astronomical purposes. It is then, an attempt to shed more light to the issue of the orientation of Roman towns by combining two hypotheses that, in contrast to what it might seem, could be complementary but not contrary.
Belmonte Aviles, JuanGonzález-García, A. César - Rodriguez-Antón, Andrea'Arabia Adquisita': The Romanization of the Nabataean Cultic Calendar and the Tannur ‘Zodiac’ ParadigmOne of the most fascinating and enigmatic pieces of evidence of Nabataean ingenuity is the so-called Zodiac of Khirbet et-Tannur (Jordan), found in a temple built at the mountain summit close to Djebel Tannur in the first half of the second century CE, possibly when the ancient Nabataean Kingdom was already under Roman rule. However, Nabataean traditions and cults persisted during the Roman period and even survived well into Byzantine times. But one important change was the imposition of a Julian-like calendar, of Egyptian inspiration, instead of the original lunisolar calendar of the Nabataeans—earlier inherited and adapted from the Babylonian one—whose month names were however preserved under a solar perspective and a new time framework entitled Era Provincia Arabia. An analysis of the dates reported in the foundation inscriptions of the first century CE rock-carved tombs at the southern Nabataean city of Hegra, and other dated inscriptions of the Nabataean Kingdom period, has given some clues for us to look at the Tannur Zodiac with a different perspective. This new way of thinking has allowed a completely different approach to this masterpiece of art which is substantially different to most previous interpretations (see e.g. McKenzie et al., ARAM Periodical 24:379– 20, 2012). According to our hypothesis, we consider that it should be formally named the ‘almanac’ or ‘parapegma’ of Khirbet et-Tannur hereafter.
Magli, Giulio-The Archaeoastronomy and Chronology of the Temple of Jupiter at BaalbekThe temple of Jupiter at Baalbek in Lebanon is one of the most complex architectural projects ever conceived. Several issues remain unsolved about this site; in particular, the relative chronology and the dates of construction of the two ‘podia’ of the temple are unsure, as well as the true nature of the cult of Jupiter practiced there. We present here a new architectural analysis based on the orientation and on other features of the temple, which clearly point to a unified project originally conceived under Herod the Great.
Rossi, CorinnaMagli, GiulioWind, Sand and Water: The Orientation of the Late Roman Forts in the Kharga Oasis (Egyptian Western Desert)The chain of late Roman fortified settlements built in the Kharga Oasis, in Egypt’s Western Desert, represents an interesting case-study to analyse how the ancient Roman town planners interacted with the landscape. A peculiar feature of the site is the existence of a prevailing, north-westerly wind, and it is possible to identify the average azimuth of the wind by measuring the central axes of the half-moon shaped sand dunes which characterize the landscape. Using the methods of archaeoastronomy, we compared these azimuths with the orthogonal layout of both the settlements and the agricultural installations and showed that these are oriented on the prevailing wind. A description and the possible implications of this ‘weathervane orientation’ are discussed in this paper.
Incerti, ManuelaLavoratti, Gaia - Iurilli, StefaniaThe Mausoleum of Theodoric: Archaeoastronomy, Numbers, Geometry and CommunicationThe following paper focuses on the Mausoleum of Theodoric (520 ca.), one of Ravenna’s Byzantine monuments and a UNESCO heritage site, presenting the results of different phases of research that begun in 2015. Starting from the instrumental survey carried out with laser-scanner and digital photogrammetry technology, the unit of measurement and the geometric properties of the decagonal shape of the design of this singular two-level building were analysed. The archaeoastronomical study has highlighted possible meanings of the orientation of the building and the positioning and sizing of small wall openings. Finally, a 3D model was developed from the survey data to verify the astronomical phenomena and to aid in the multimedia communication of the scientific content. It is increasingly clear how virtual models, both interactive and non-interactive, constitute an important edutainment tool. This element is indispensable to the development of contemporary methods of dissemination for the fruition of cultural sites and artifacts.
Zotti, GeorgFrischer, Bernard - Schaukowitsch, Florian - Wimmer, Michael - Neubauer, WolfgangVirtual Archaeoastronomy: Stellarium for Research and OutreachIn the last few years, the open-source desktop planetarium program Stellarium has become ever more popular for research and dissemination of results in Cultural Astronomy. In this time we (LBI ArchPro and TU Wien) have added significant capabilities for applications in Cultural Astronomy to the program, in particular a way to allow virtual 3D exploration of architecture from any period. The major part of this chapter describes our recent accomplishments for allowing its use in a multi-screen installation running both completely automated and manually controlled setups in an exhibition about Stonehenge. During the development time, also the accuracy of astronomical simulation has been greatly improved. The final part of this chapter (authored by B. Frischer) presents the latest application examples, in particular of these 3D capabilities, for Cultural Astronomy research in the Roman world.
Veneziano, Giuseppe-Archeoastronomia: il cielo degli antichi-
Felolo, Luigi-Il mondo megalitico (non solo monte Bego)-
Codebò, Mario-Corso elementare di Archeoastronomia. Lezione 1: Problemi generali del rilevamento archeoastronomico-
Pederzoli, Davide-Teoria degli errori e calcolo delle probabilità nelle misurazioni archeoastronomiche-
Suriosini, Floriana-Tecniche di scavo di periodo classico (Lo scavo archeologico stratigrafico secondo Edward C. Harris)-
Calzolari, Enrico-Approccio olistico nella ricerca dei siti archeoastronomici-
Manuguerra, Mirco-Approccio empirico alla storia dell’Astronomia-
Chiari, Roberto-Petrofisica dei campi elettromagnetici-
Felolo, Luigi-Stonehenge e Innerebner: pietre e montagne-
Felolo, Luigi-L’evoluzione del pensiero umano nell’arte parietale delle grotte franco-cantabriche-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-La stella Sirio tra scienza, storia e mitoSirius, the brightest star in the winter night sky, presents several historical enigmas. In ancient Egypt, its annual heliacal rising announced the inundations of the river Nile. Today Sirius is white with a trace of blue, but several writers and astronomers from ancient Rome and Greece termed it red or fiery in colour. At last, it seems that some African tribes knew Sirius’ white-dwarf companion before its discovery.
Calzolari, EnricoGori, DavideL’impronta della costellazione di Cassiopea nel Caprione: lettura astronomica e archetipi sciamanici-
Manuguerra, Mirco-Archeoastronomia: considerazioni sul metodo-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-Metodi di datazione e loro limitazioni-
Barale, Piero-La costellazione di Orione nella tradizione popolare delle Alpi sud-occidentali-
Del Ponte, Renato-I Liguri: etnogenesi di un popolo-
Felolo, Luigi-Antiche radici di toponimi montani-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-L'Astronomia dei Celti-
Barale, Piero-Un rebus ai piedi del Monviso: Bric Lombatera e il suo magico recinto-
Calzolari, EnricoFadda, Lello - Gori, DavideThe generating constellation of the Great Bear, the Cassiopeia and the Butterfly: A Sardinian and Ligurian cosmogony?On the promontory of Caprione, the most eastern promontory of the Ligurian Riviera – Northern Italy five megalithic places (literal meaning = 'big stones'), geologically and archaeoastronomically investigated, have been found. They are positioned on a Regional Technical Maps (1:5,000) according to the Cassiopeia's mark: in the San Lorenzo's site, at the summer’s solstice sunset, the sun light produces on a phallic stone, a gilded butterfly image. The Cassiopeia mark and the butterfly double-symbology are found in a terracotta figurine (5500 B.C.) found in Passo di Corvo (Southern Italy). A complex cosmogony made up by some incisions characterized by a butterfly, the Ursa Major, the Cassiopeia and the Draco constellations, and many anthropomorphic representations have been recovered on the Sardinia’s island, in the Domus de Janas (eneolithic ipogeum – 2700 B.C.) of Sas Concas (Oniferi, Nuoro).
Felolo, Luigi-Orientamenti astronomici naturali-
De Santis, Henry-La costellazione del Corvo su una roccia incisa: un’ipotesi di astronomia culturale-
Felolo, Luigi-Pitea: navigatore-astronomo del IV secolo a.C.-
Barale, Piero-Augusta Bagiennorum: una città astronomicamente orientata-
Codebò, Mario-Stato e prospettive della ricerca archeoastronomica in Liguria-
Gaspani, Adriano-Analisi archeoastronomica del sito monastico di Reask e l’orientazione dei luoghi di culto cristiani nell’Irlanda medioevale-
Calzolari, Enrico-Lagorara: ipotesi di sito paleoastronomico (osservatorio astronomico megalitico nella fascia di latitudine 45°)-
Maio, Marco-La dimensione archetipica nell’uomo primitivo: il rapporto con il cielo-
Manuguerra, Mirco-Una nuova interpretazione dell'iconografia classica della figura umana nelle Statue-steli della Lunigiana-
Lupato, Giovanni-Casistica di errori in archeoastronomia (1a parte)-
Codebò, Mario-Casistica di errori in archeoastronomia (2a parte)-
Felolo, Luigi-Le incisioni rupestri corniformi di Monte Bego e l’equinozio di primavera-
De Santis, HenryGreco, MarcoAnalisi archeoastronomica e storico-archeologica della pieve di S. Maria Maddalena di Lavina (Imperia)-
Ghione, Ugo-La teoria dell’errore nel calcolo del meridiano-
Calzolari, Enrico-Ipotesi di ricerca sulla sincronia fra megaliti con l’archetipo losanga ed il triangolo isoscele geodeticoDopo il ritrovamento degli allineamenti astronomici in Filitosa, si è formato in Corsica un gruppo di ricerca di archeoastronomia (Associazione A.R.C.A.) che ha iniziato ricerche sistematiche nella regione. Si è così scoperto che in Niolu (Cortenais) esiste una monumento megalitico denominato “e Trepide”, sormontato da una losanga simile a quelli di San Lorenzo al Caprione (Liguria Orientale) e di Château Vieux de Randon (Lozère - Massiccio Centrale di Francia). La struttura megalitica è attraversata dal Sole che sorge al Solstizio d’Inverno e dal Sole che tramonta al Solstizio d’Estate, inoltre in prossimità si è trovato un 'solium' da cui si può osservare il sorgere del Sole equinoziale, che penetra un foro esistente in una grande roccia. Una ulteriore struttura per l’osservazione (mira) è stata recentemente scoperta ed è in fase di studio.
Veneziano, Giuseppe-L’Astronomia nei testi biblici-
Gaspani, Adriano-an NEMGNACHT : L’Astronomia dei Celti d’Irlanda-
Calzolari, EnricoOttavi, Antoine-MariL’ osservatorio astronomico preistorico di Niolu (Corsica)In the Corse Isle, below the Cinto Massif, there is the territory of Niolu, which was studied by Grosjean. The founds resulted at 6000 B.C.. Antoine Ottavi, after having seen during the Corte and Filitosa meetings the megaliths surmounted by the lozenge in the Caprione (Eastern Liguria) and in Lozère (Signal de Randon), could find in Niolu a megalithic structure defined by three archaeologists as dolmen and as pseudo-dolmen, and associate it to the paleoastronomic researches derived by the Caprione’s tetralithon, as oriented structure to the sunrise at the winter solstice and to the sunset at the summer solstice. After the survey made in the place it is also appeared a perfect alignment to the equinoctial sunrise.
Felolo, Luigi-Airglows: targets di orientamenti? Funzione critica di geomagnetismo, astrofisica e climatologia storica-
De Santis, Henry-Montagne meridiane dell’Appennino Ligure-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-La stella di Betleem: realtà o fantasia?-
Bianchi, EttoreCodebò, MarioConsiderazioni astronomiche sulle aspettative messianiche giudaico-cristianeSince about the second century b.C. to about the second century a.C. several eschatological hopes spread over the Asiatic, African and European Mediterranean area among Latin, Greek, Jewish, etc. peoples, sometimes being the cause of rebellions too: peoples were waiting for a new age!When Jesus Christ was born, an unknown star guided the Magi to Bethlehem. An accurate reading of the second chapter of the Gospel according to St. Matthew shows that this unknown star was seen only by Magi. In fact king Herod was obliged to ask them explanations. But who were the Magi? They were not wizards; they were astronomers and astrologers. Therefore the unknown star which only they saw either it was a St. Matthew’s lie or it was a heaven phenomenon or body which only professional astronomers could see. Such a kind of heavenly phenomenon or body are both the equinoctial points – vernal equinoctial point γ and autumnal equinoctial point Ω – and their precessional movement. Just at the end of the first century b. C., the two equinoctial points went into the new zodiacal constellations Pisces and Virgo respectively; they had been in Aries and in Libra respectively for 2147,5 years. We suggest that the unknown star that only Magi saw it was the new precessional positions of vernal point γ and autumnal point Ω in Pisces and in Virgo respectively. But another rare and meaningful heavenly phenomenon took place in 7 b.C.: planets Jupiter and Saturn got their least angular separation three times in the same constellation, which was just Pisces! We agree with people who suggest that this threefold least angular separation between Jupiter and Saturn is the David Star with six tips which got its previous threefold least angular separation in Pisces in 980 b.C. But a more rare circumstance happened in 7 b.C.: the threefold least angular separation of Jupiter and Saturn happened in the same constellation where the Sun began to rise at the vernal equinox. The last time it happened a similar heavenly circumstance was about 4100 b.C. in Taurus! We suggest that the peoples of the first century b.C. thought that this very very rare heavenly phenomenon was the beginning of a new era. We suggest that this idea was strengthened by the entry of autumnal point Ω in Virgo constellation, because according to the Greek-Latin mythology Virgo was the goddess of Justice who was living with mankind on the Earth during the Golden Age but who flew to the Heaven when mankind worsened from the Silver Age onwards; at the end of the first century b.C. Virgo was coming back and a son of hers, the Sun, was born, that is it rose in September (autumnal equinox), in her: a new Sun for a new age. We suggest that this birth in Virgo was the origin or the heavenly mark of some ancient myths and religious beliefs: the child referred to by Virgil in his fourth Bucolica, the child born by a virgin in Isaiah 7,14, the maidenly birth of Jesus. We suggest that the contemporaneity of all these heavenly events – equinoctial Sun entry in Pisces and in Virgo after 2147,5 years; the threefold least angular separation of Jupiter and Saturn in Pisces after 854 years; the concomitance of the threefold least angular separation of Jupiter and Saturn in the same constellation in which one of the two equinoctial points has just arrived after about 4100 years; the return of Virgo constellation and the birth=rising of autumnal equinoctial Sun in her – was the factor of the eschatological hopes for a new age at the beginning of the Christian era.
Barale, Piero-l cielo del Popolo del faggio : Sole, Luna e stelle dei Ligures Bagienni-
Filingeri, Licia-L’attivazione del pensiero nell’uomo-
Dimitriadis, Giorgio-Cosmologia e mentalità preistorica : riflessioni su alcuni manufatti dell’Età del BronzoPrincipal aim of the present paper is to re-read some Bronze Age artefacts in order to collect the cosmological guidelines of the societies employ metal technological complex. That’s why the introduction is dedicated to the review how some natural elements such the “space” are able to create a cosmogony-religious system.
Felolo, Luigi-Le antiche osservazioni degli astri nelle attuali leggende: il caso di Campofey in Val Grana-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-l cielo degli antichi Germani nel disco di Nebra-
De Santis, HenryCodebò, Mario - Veronesi, AlessandroAnalisi archeoastronomica della chiesa di San Marziano, di Viarigi (Asti)-
Calzolari, EnricoOttavi, Antoine-Mari - Jègues, ChantalEquinozio: il problema etimologico e ilproblema semanticoMore than the measure of solstices, the measure of the equinox presided over the understanding by the human being of its environment. It has been considered impossible, because those who built this term did not possess instrument precise enough and reliable of measuring time (in other words a mechanical system of verifiable clock). In consequence of this idea the equinoctial alignments may be simply owed at random, and they cannot be qualified as “equinoctial” being equinox not visible. We have found in Corsica examples of equinoctial alignments and we can demonstrate that it is possible at 45° of Latitude to obtain it by the perfect linear shadow of the stick, as in the Lascaux’s Grotto, Chantal Jègues has discovered the Vernal Point in the Scorpio and the Autumn One in the Taurus.
Barale, Piero-Archeoastronomia ai “Turrigli” dell’antica Pollentia-
Torlai, Luigi-Orologi solari : Arte e Scienza in un raggio di Sole-
Codebò, Mario-Orientamento astronomico di tombe e templi preistorici nel Mediterraneo : presentazione del libro “Stele e Stelle” di Michael Hoskin-
Bianchi, EttoreCodebò, Mario - Veneziano, GiuseppeDalla “Stella di Betlemme” alla creazione del mondo-
Felolo, Luigi-La fine dell’osservazione del cielo nell’alto medioevo-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-Precessione degli Equinozi : implicazioni astronomiche e climatiche-
Barale, Piero-La Bisalta: luminosa montagna degli Dei-
Brunod, GiuseppeCinquetti, MauroUn calendario per gli uomini dell’Età del Rame: Paspardo (Brescia) – Un antico osservatorio astronomico-
Codebò, MarioDe Santis, HenryLa pietra-fitta della dolina di San Lorenzo (IM) e l’omonima cappella: aspetti archeoastronomici-
Campagnoli, Enrico-Le placche della necropoli di Chiavari (Genova) e il loro possibile uso come astrolabio-
Baudà, Alberto-Dalle placche della necropoli di Chiavari l’ipotesi di una città orientata-
Calzolari, Enrico-Esperienza decennale di studi ALSSA e stato dell’arte nell’Archeoastronomia-
Calzolari, Enrico-Alcune osservazioni di Paleo-astronomia, archeo-astronomia e archeo-astronomia cristiana-
Bianchi, EttoreCodebò, Mario - Veneziano, GiuseppeTempo della Creazione e ciclo precessionale nella Bibbia-
Felolo, Luigi-Eratostene e Posidonio: l'errore della misura della circonferenza terrestre nei viaggi di Cristoforo Colombo-
Brunod, GiuseppeVeneziano, GiuseppeLa Roccia del Sole: una meridiana stagionale per gli antichi Camuni-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-Le antiche conoscenze celesti come strumento di potere sociale: il caso della Roccia del Sole a Paspardo-
De Santis, Henry-Breve analisi della possibile funzione meridiana del Monte di Mezzogiorno a Stellanello (Savona)-
Barale, Piero-Luna e lunistizi: culti e riti celesti degli antichi Liguri-
Calzolari, Enrico-L'utilizzo della luce nell'antichità come indicatore puntuale dei fenomeni astronomici-
Casale, Mauro-Albert Einstein nell'Appennino Ligure e l'ipotesi di Mercurio-
De Franceschini, Marina-Archeoastronomia nella Roma di Augusto e Adriano: l'Horologium Augusti ed il Pantheon-
Codebò, Mario-L'algoritmo giuliano del Sole (Metodo JDE)-
De Santis, Henry-Nuove indagini sul Monte di Mezzogiorno a Stellanello (SV)-
Veronesi, Alessandro-La stella di Betlemme vista dai Magi-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-La profezia biblica delle “settanta settimane”: una nuova chiave cronologica della vita di Gesù Cristo tra storia e astronomia-
Salvo. Elena-Astri e percorsi storici: limiti e prospettive-
Ragazzi, Gaudenzio-Il "Gioco del Mondo" e il cosmo degli antichiThe game called “Gioco del Mondo” (in other parts of Italy, "Campana" and "Settimana", "Marelle" in France, "Rayuela” in the Hispanic world, "Hopscotch" in Anglo-Saxon countries) is among the most popular and played by children at any time and place. This research analyzes the game starting from its two primary components, in which is preserved the memory of knowledge belonging to the prehistory of western though: the path and the rules. The path of the game is a representation of the cosmos and its parts are elements of sacred geometry. In the antiquity such geometry is linked to the ritual of orientation of the temple and cities, as images of heaven on earth, to the regions of the sky. There are two types of tracks (which we call A and B) that correspond to two ways of looking at the cosmos. The path A is built on a center ('axis mundi', the point of origin of space and time, indivisible entity, God) and is composed of the circle (symbol of the sky) and the square (symbol of the earth) divided into four parts by a crossoriented towards the cardinals points. In path A prevails the vertical dimension. The movement from one frame to another is by repeated jumps on one foot. The jump is a symbol of flight from a cosmic dimension to another. The direction is vertical and upward. the movement from one frame to another is made with repeated jumps on one foot. The jump is a symbol of flight from a cosmic dimension to another. The path B, instead of the cross with right angles, has a diagonal cross. As has been highlighted by the archaeoastronomical research, the diagonals passing through the center indicate the points on the horizon where the sun rises and sets on the day of the solstices. Path B is crossed with jump alternating on one and two feet, perhaps recalling the steps of an ancient dance, symbolizing the annual journey of the sun in the sky. So, if the path is the image of the cosmos, the jumps allow the player to move in the direction of ascending / descending or horizontal, from one region to another of the cosmos, in order to retrieve the stone, which Prof. Jan De Vries had interpreted as a symbol of the human soul. The game is the imitation of a healing ritual in which a shaman brings back the soul from a spirit kidnapped and imprisoned in his headquarters in a region of the cosmos.
Felolo, Luigi-Una rosa dei venti neanderthaliana di 80 mila anni fa e le due Orse-
Calzolari, EnricoDi Benedetto, Vincenzo - Lancini, Gabriele - Peretto, BrunoPrime ricerche archeoastronomiche nel territorio di Andrate (Torino)-
Brunod, Giuseppe-La nascita e lo sviluppo dell'archeoastronomia in Val Camonica-
Gervasoni, Elena-Le mie prime ricerche archeoastronomiche in Val Camonica-
Felolo, Luigi-Feste dei Germani collegate a solstizi ed equinozi-
De Franceschini, MarinaVeneziano, GiuseppeArchitettura celeste nella Villa Adriana di Tivoli (Roma)Hadrian’s Villa near Tivoli, Rome, built by Emperor Hadrian starting from 117 A.D., is the most important ancient roman Villa, one of the highlights of Roman architecture. Archaeoastronomy is a brand new field of research in this remarkable archaeological site. Marina De Franceschini and Giuseppe Veneziano discovered that the Accademia Esplanade (the Acropolis of the Villa) and its buildings (Accademia and Roccabruna) are oriented on the Solstitial axis linking the sunrise of Winter Solstice to the sunset of Summer Solstice. Special light effects are occurring in those two buildings on both Solstices. In the Accademia, the rays of the Sun illuminate a series of axial rooms, creating peculiar light spots on the walls of the so called Temple of Apollo. In Roccabruna, a special window creates a slot of light inside the domed vault of its main hall, as was discovered by the american architects Robert Mangurian and Mary-Ann Ray back in 1988. Archaeoastronomy led to a new interpretation of the function and meaning of the two buildings and of the Esplanade as the Sacred area of the Villa, as it will be fully explained in our forthcoming book: "Villa Adriana - Architettura Celeste. I Segreti dei Solstizi" (l’Erma di Bretschneider, 2011).
Codebò, MarioSalvo, ElenaOrientamenti astronomici di Roccabruna e Tempio di Apollo: algoritmi e calcoli-
De Santis, Henry-Determinazione dell’orientamento di un presunto menhir al Passo del Bracco (SP)-
Codebò, Mario-Il calcolo FK4 B1950.0 della precessione delle stelleSi descrive l’algoritmo per il calcolo della posizione apparente di una stella ad una determinata data - in Archeoastronomia quasi sempre nel passato più o meno remoto - partendo dalle sue coordinate per un’epoca standard (per es. il 1900, il 1950, il 2000 o, prossimamente, il 2050).
Torlai, Luigi-Evidenze paleo-archeoastronomiche nel territorio di Pitigliano (Grosseto)-
Brunod, Giuseppe-S. Sebastiano di Celle Macra (CN): una meridiana occasa ad osservazione diretta-
Pucci, ItaloFelolo, LuigiUn possibile azimut archeoastronomico nella religiosità celto-ligure sul Monte Ramaceto (Genova)-
Argenta, MonicaMasali, Melchiorre - Brunod, GiuseppePsichiatri, criminologi, strutturalisti e astronomi... Breve (e strana) storia sugli studi d'arte rupestre in Valcamonica-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-La Via del Cielo: Il mito della costellazione generatrice-
Calzolari, EnricoBerti, SergioIntroduzione storiografica alle strutture con pietre ad aggetto, dette "Cavanei"Nel promontorio del Caprione si rinvengono costruzioni a 'tholos', chiamate dialettalmente “cavanèi”. Questa voce ha una etimologia celtico-gaelica da 'cabhan' = “luogo rotondo” (R. Coghlan). Nel resto della Liguria queste costruzioni sono note come “caselle”. Anche questo termine è di derivazione celtico-gaelica da 'cashel' = costruzione di difesa in pietra a forma circolare (R. Coghlan). Nel Caprione, alla fine della Seconda Guerra Mondiale, si contavano circa duecentocinquanta di queste costruzioni realizzate con la tecnica dell’aggetto, poste tutte nel versante ovest, rivolte cioè verso il mare, ed inspiegabilmente mancanti nel versante del promontorio rivolto verso il fiume Magra. Si pensava all’esigenza della insolazione, per vivere meglio la vita agricola. Non si pensava alla valenza archeoastronomica di dette costruzioni. Studiando a lungo questo tipo di strutture, dall’innegabile valore etnografico (mai riconosciuto dalle autorità predisposte alla salvaguardia degli elementi culturali del territorio) è emerso questo ulteriore valore, al quale si è aggiunto anche l’inaspettato aspetto della geometria sacra. Si ritiene necessario divulgare questi valori del territorio per impedire lo scempio da parte degli immobiliaristi, pronti a costruire dovunque (ed infatti il numero dei cavanèi si è ridotto a meno di cinquanta).
Berti, SergioCalzolari, EnricoFunzione calendariale e aspetti di geometria sacra nel Cavaneo dello Spirito Santo a Lerici(SP)-
Bianchi, Ettore-"Babyloniakà" : La precessione degli equinozi nella tarda astrologia caldea-
Casanova, Giorgio-Angkor (Cambogia) e la precessione degli equinozi : L'urbanistica di un'antica città tra mito e astronomia-
De Franceschini, Marina-Orientamenti equinoziali nel Mediterraneo : Il Tempio preistorico di Mnajdra a Malta e il Mausoleo degli Equinozi a Roma-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-Astronomia e simbolismo mistico nella pieve romanica di S. Maria in Cortemilia (Cuneo)-
Barale, PieroBrunod, GiuseppeLa stele dei Bagienni: storia di una scoperta inconsueta relativa ad un antico "sasso astronomico"-
Planezio, Pietro-Quale epoca e sito di origine per le costellazioni? Considerazioni e discussioni-
Cinquetti, MauroVozza, RobertaLa Pietra Verde nelle Alpi e il suo utilizzo in età preistorica-
Nocentini, Giovanni-Incisioni rupestri nel Conero : Lettura archeoastronomica dei culti della fertilità-
Torlai, Luigi-I ritmi del tempo nell'archeoastronomia d'orizzonte-
Felolo, Luigi-Le due "Antola" e altri orientamenti naturali-
Calzolari, Enrico-Il sorgere della Luna e determinazione di bisettrice in un triangolo di coppelle a Poggio Bartolo (Pitigliano, GR)-
Pietrapiana, Paolo-Definizione di Anno Precessionale e di alcuni concetti di astronomia sferica ad esso correlati-
Ragazzi, Gaudenzio-Iconografia Preistorica ed Epistemologia: riflessioni su alcune ricerche in corso-
De Santis, Henry-Misurazione preliminare degli orientamenti di 11 chiese rurali dell'isola di Pantelleria (TP)-
Codebò, Mario-Il calcolo FK4 B1900.0 della precessione delle stelle-
Frosini, Agostino-Presentazione del software di calcolo FK4 B1950.0-
Casanova, Giorgio-Astronomia e orologi nel Rinascimento : Gli orologi astronomici di Bologna e Macerata e le teorie cosmologiche del pitagorico Filolao-
De Franceschini, MarinaVeneziano, GiuseppeArcheoastronomia nelle ville imperiali romane: Villa Jovis a Capri (Napoli)-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-Effetti della rotazione terrestre sulla previsione dei fenomeni celesti (sulla presunta eclisse del Monte Bego)-
Miglietta, Alessio-L'Eta' del Mondo : Il sistema cronologico newtoniano tra astronomia, archeologia ed esegesi-
Torlai, Luigi-Il "Bastone equinoziale"-
Bianchi, Ettore-Il Sole dell'Avvenire e l'utopia rivoluzionaria di Aristonìco (II sec. a.C.)-
Felolo, Luigi-La "Dag Rune" (la "Runa del Giorno") e altre quattro-
Calzolari, Enrico-Per un progetto di Parco di paleo-archeoastronomia nel promontorio del Caprione (SP)-
Pietrapiana, Paolo-Campi di piramidi e costellazioni parallele al piano galattico-
Carboni, Stefano-Il "Sasso del Regio": ipotesi di calendario luni-solare rupestre-
Ragazzi, Gaudenzio-Iconografia preistorica e Coreutica: la Danza alle porte del Cosmo : Le incisioni rupestri e il Codice Cosmologico: una premessa-
De Santis, HenryPedemonte, SergioMisurazione archeoastronomica dei ruderi della chiesa di Santo Stefano ad Isola del Cantone (Genova)-
Codebò, MarioFrosini, AgostinoIl Metodo Nautico per il calcolo dell'azimut di un allineamento e della declinazione da esso sottesa-
Felolo, Luigi-Due incisioni lineari e orientate sui monti di Voltri (Genova)-
Casanova, Giorgio-Tra comete, globi e "travi infuocate" : L'osservazione del cielo e i suoi misteri in antichi documenti-
Montinari, Giulio-Considerazioni su alcune pietre incise rinvenute nel comune di Apricale (Val Nervia, Imperia)-
Torlai, Luigi-Orologi e calendari : Quando il cielo misurava il tempo-
Nocentini, Giovanni-La "Tina dell'Omo Salvatico" a Monterchi (Arezzo): una vasca litica preistorica con riferimenti astronomici e cultuali-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-Sull'armonia tra l'Uomo e il Cosmo : Astronomia nell'architettura degli edifici religiosi da Vitruvio al Rinascimento-
De Franceschini, Marina-Il Pantheon di Roma: nuove immagini dei fenomeni luminosi. L'arco di luce-
Calzolari, Enrico-Esperienze di archeoastronomia nell'isola di Capraia (Livorno)-
Colona, Paolo-Fortuna dei pianeti e riferimenti astronomici nel "Canzoniere" di Francesco PetrarcaRaccogliamo alcuni risultati del nostro lavoro sull’uso di riferimenti astronomici da parte di Francesco Petrarca nel "Canzoniere". Mettiamo in evidenza il parallelismo tra la figura mitica, codificata dall’astrologia, di Saturno e alcuni passi del sonetto 35 'Solo et Pensoso'; l’uso del 'dodecasterion', un simbolo legato allo Zodiaco e diffuso in arte e letteratura; ed evidenziamo una numerologia prettamente astronomica nascosta all’interno dell’intera opera. Introduce la trattazione un saggio su come i pianeti siano assurti a ruolo di divinità in base all’aspetto mostrato all’osservazione astronomica.
Pietrapiana, Paolo-Il nodo precessionale e i cicli cosmici sul soffitto della tomba di Senenmut (TT353) in Egitto-
Peano Cavasola, Alberto-Uno zodiaco dell'Era del Toro nel libro della GenesiLe benedizioni di Giacobbe ai suoi dodici figli nel cap. 49 di "Genesi" seguono ordinatamente le caratteristiche delle costellazioni dello zodiaco con l’obbiettivo di togliervi le divinità mesopotamiche e ricondurlo a rappresentazione iconografica di simboli dei patriarchi o del destino della loro tribù. Non si tratta, però dello zodiaco ellenistico, ma di uno più antico, il cui primo segno è il Toro.
Codebò, Mario-Dall'altezza misurata all'altezza vera-
Frosini, Agostino-Punto astronomico con le rette d'altezza-
Casanova, Giorgio-La caduta di Fetonte e la fine dell'Età del Bronzo-
De Franceschini, MarinaVeneziano, GiuseppeArcheoastronomia nel Mausoleo di Adriano : Castel Sant'Angelo (Roma)-
Barale, Piero-"Sol Invictus" : Luce e tenebre nell'ipogeo della Casnea, a Briaglia (Cuneo)-
Torlai, Luigi-Dai cieli del mito alle sfere di cristallo-
Nocentini, Giovanni-La Basilica di San Francesco in Assisi: il suo orientamento e i motivi che ispirarono la sua costruzione-
Pietrapiana, Paolo-Correlazioni geodetiche dell'antico sito archeologico di Baalbek (Libano)-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-L'eclisse di Erode-
Calzolari, Enrico-Struttura complessa, fatta di dolmen e pietra a uovo fessurata, di Monte Grosso, nel sentiero n° 1 del Parco Naturale delle Cinque Terre, in Riomaggiore (La Spezia)Nel crinale del Parco delle Cinque Terre esistono alcuni megaliti di varie tipologie, fra cui una struttura complessa formata da un piccolo dolmen e da una pietra ad uovo, fessurata a metà. Sia la bisettrice del dolmen sia la fessurazione della pietra ad uovo puntano a Sud.La fessurazione è stata fatta con la tecnica dei cunei bagnati di acqua e se ne rilevano le due incisioni, sia nel lato destro sia nel lato sinistro della fessura, che appare molto grezza e non perfettamente rettilinea. Il dolmen appare simile, nella tipologia della struttura e nelle dimensioni, a quello trovato nella località Codina del Promontorio del Caprione, la cui bisettrice è rivolta al Sud ed all’interno del quale sono state rinvenute quindici selci, analizzate presso l’Università di Parma, e di cui ne è stata fatta pubblicazione sia nel mio libro “La preistoria del Caprione” (2006) sia nel “quaderno del territorio” a titolo “Raccolta di toponimi del territorio di Lerici” (2005). La prima comunicazione circa la struttura complessa di Monte Grosso è stata fatta nel "Bollettino" N° 65 dell’Osservatorio Astronomico di Genova del giugno 1994, col titolo “Meridiane preistoriche nelle Cinque Terre?”, in cui, oltre alla struttura complessa di Monte Grosso, veniva presentata la Meridiana di Monte Capri, all’interno della quale appare, nelle giornate di grande visibilità, la silhouette dell’Isola Capraia.
Felolo, Luigi-Osservatori solari e lunari: Solstizi e cerchi megalitici delle Isole Orcadi-
De Rose, LucianaPiperno, Franco - Zavaglia, Angela M.Il cielo nell’affresco del Mitreo di Marino (Roma) tra immagine simbolica e conoscenze astronomiche-
Uberti, Marisa-La "Triplice Cinta" in relazione alla sua valenza di gioco e simbolo astronomico-
Ragazzi, Gaudenzio-Osservazioni archeoastronomiche nella cripta della chiesa romanica di San Glisente (Brescia)-
Montinari, Giandomenico-Il contrasto nell’esperienza rituale: riflessioni psico-antropologiche-
De Santis, Henry-L’interpretazione del “Mazzaroth” del Vecchio Testamento e le sue connessioni con l’astronomia assiro-babilonese-
De Franceschini, MarinaVeneziano, GiuseppeVilla Adriana di Tivoli (Roma): una nuova scoperta a Roccabruna-
Codebò, MarioFrosini, AgostinoSulle rotte di UlisseIn this study we consider three nautical routes described in the Odyssey: 1) the eighteen days Ulisses’ voyage on a “raft” sailing from the Ogygia island to Ithaca island (withlandings, actually, in Scheria, the island of Phaeaci people, due to a storm at the end of the voyage); 2) the drift, lasting ten days, of the shipwrecked Ulisses, “clinging” to a wreck of his ship, from Charybdis whirpool to Ogygia island. 3) the voyage, that lasted only from sunset to sunrise, with the Pheaci’s rowing and sailing boat fromScheria to Ithaca; Homer gives to his readers all the elements to calculate the first route: direction, time and vessel’sspeed. We have no evidence so closely precise about the other two, but we can calculate them as, respectively, the previous and following route. We shall demonstrate that these three routes and their astronomical indications are not compatible with the latitudes of the Northern Atlantic and the Baltic Sea assumed in the so-called theory of Homer in the Baltic Sea, while they are compatible with the southern latitudes of the Mediterranean Sea.
Torlai, Luigi-La Luna Piena del solstizio estivo: un evento inciso sulla pietra-
Nocentini, Giovanni-Un importante tempio etrusco nei dintorni di Arezzo e il suo particolare orientamento astronomico-
Di Bennardo, Alessandro-L’archetipo della Gerusalemme Celeste nella chiesa di Santa Maria dei Cerei a Rometta (Messina)-
Peano Cavasola, Alberto-La precessione degli equinozi e le prime accuse di deicidio contro gli EbreiSecondo la Bibbia la Pasqua ebraica (Pesach) doveva avere luogo in corrispondenza alla maturazione delle prime spighe d’orzo (evento legato all’anno tropico). Secondo Giuseppe Flavio, invece, e probabilmente anche secondo molti ebrei del suo tempo, essa doveva svolgersi mentre il Sole era in Ariete (evento legato all’anno sidereo). Questi due criteri sono destinati a divergere. Quando la precessione degli equinozi fu definitivamente accertata, nacquero contrasti sulla data della Pasqua che divisero al loro interno il giudaismo e la cristianità. L’artificio politico più semplice per imporre la concordia è, purtroppo, l’indicazione di un capro espiatorio.
Calzolari, Enrico-Rilettura del petroglifo del sentiero 118 C.A.I. di Lunigiana alla luce della scoperta del DNA dell’Helicobacter Pylori rinvenuto nello stomaco dell’Uomo di Similaun (Oetzi)-
De Rose, Luciana-La sfera armillare di Solunto (Palermo)-
Uberti, Marisa-Archeoastronomia ed esoterismo negli edifici medievali-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-L'astronomia nelle feste dell'antica RomaThe Romans were devoted to many gods and for each of these there was a special feast. In this report it will be examined, in particular, those deities related to seasonal and agricultural activities, which were part of the ancient history of the city. Then we will consider those most closely related to astronomy: the festival of 'Robigalia' – connected with the star Sirius – and those about the two solstices, i.e. the 'Saturnalia' to the winter solstice, and the one dedicated to 'Fors Fortuna' to the summer solstice. These festivals reveal a practice of worship of celestial objects but also, and above all, a practical observation of celestial phenomena for calendrical purposes.
Colona, Paolo-Lucifero: angelo caduto o Venere? Esegesi astronomica di Isaia 14Segnaliamo una descrizione dell'osservazione astronomica di Venere nel libro di Isaia. Notiamo che Lucifero è un nome tradizionale del diavolo, ma originariamente indica, nel passo biblico in esame, non un demone, bensì il pianeta Venere, nel contesto di un’invettiva contro un re superbo. Indichiamo per quale motivo Isaia usa il nome di Venere per apostrofare il despota, e mostriamo in che modo il nome Lucifero, che nell'Antico Testamento indicava solo Venere mattutina, passa a designare il diavolo.
De Santis, HenryMontinari, GiulioVerifiche archeoastronomiche sull’allineamento della struttura sommitale di Monte Caggio/Tana della Ratapena (Sanremo/Perinaldo, Imperia)-
Zottele, Stefano-Variazioni climatiche e previsioni dell’attività solareIl clima sulla Terra potrebbe essere in stretto rapporto con l’attività del Sole, deducibile dal numero di macchie che appaiono sulla superficie della nostra stella. Le previsioni dell’attività solare futura sono quindi molto importanti per noi. Coloro che studiano l’attività solare davano dati tra 40 e 200 macchie per il ciclo in corso. Il risultato è invece 70. Questo significa che adesso nessuno ha una idea chiara di come si sta comportando la nostra stella. Le difficoltà sono notevoli. La principale è la brevità delle osservazioni storiche a nostra disposizione. Attualmente possiamo arrivare fino a 11000 anni fa con i proxies e poi ci resta il livello dei mari. I proxies quantificano i cambiamenti ma non ci dicono che cosa sia successo. Abbiamo anche le osservazioni dei nostri antenati che erano raffinati osservatori degli eventi celesti, ma non sono riusciti a comunicarci tutto, dal momento che anche le forme di scrittura sono comunque recenti se calcolate sulla scala temporale della nostra stella. Però questo vuoto di conoscenza è possibile in parte colmarlo con lo studio degli edifici, soprattutto sacri. E ancora prima con i miti che sono arrivati fino anoi dal lontano passato. Le religioni e le relative mitologie erano infatti le attività di punta delle menti pensanti. Questo ambito religioso ci consegna, ad esempio, il mito del “Diluvio universale”. Se lo avessimo correttamente interpretato, probabilmente avremmo trovato prima le civiltà sommerse. Ma esistono altri miti collegati all’influenza dell’attività solare sulla storia umana? Nella relazione verranno analizzati alcuni di questi miti e verrà presentato un sistema che io uso per l’individuazione di alcuni particolari tipi di macchie (dette “regioni di tipo S”) le cui apparizioni sono pure sintomatiche del livello di attività del Sole.
Di Bennardo, Alessandro-Palermo città orientata. Il simbolismo astronomico della strada del Cassaro dalle origini fenicie alla rifondazione controriformistaLo studio offre un inedito punto di vista sulle proprietà simboliche di derivazione astronomica insite nella strada primigenia di Palermo, l’antichissima via del Cassaro: sia nella versione derivante dalla sua rifondazione cinquecentesca (la Via Toledo dei Viceré) quanto nell’originale tracciato fenicio. Attraverso l’analisi dell’orientamento solare a due particolari albe solari dell’anno, emerge un’inconfutabile legame 'ante litteram' tra il progetto vicereale di rifondazione urbana, com’è noto, attuato attraverso la rettifica dell’antichissimo Cassaro (deliberata dal Senato Palermitano il 1567 e conclusa nel 1637 con il completamento delle porte urbiche Felice e Nuova) e le vicende attinenti il culto di Rosalia, Santa Patrona canonizzata da Roma nel 1630. I valori azimutali di Via Toledo lasciano pochi dubbi: in linea con i dettami della politica controriformista dell’epoca, il Viceregno rifonda l’identità urbanistica di Palermo d’intesa con la intellighenzia curiale guidata dal cardinale genovese Doria, allontanando definitivamente la città dal suo antico logos “semitico” (ovvero legato al culto di Tanit) attraverso la modifica del primigenio asse urbano ai sensi di un nuovo orientamento alle albe solari celebranti la santuzza, la nuova “Rosa di Palermo”. La tesi, attraverso la metodologia analitica dell’archeo-astronomica, trova un’affascinante quanto palese conferma nella criptica iconografia della esegesi di Umbrat Fugas Veritas, disegnata a Madrid da Manuel Calasibetta nel 1668: un’immagine ben nota alla storiografia, per secoli rimasta in attesa della giusta chiave interpretativa, adesso fonte preziosa per la comprensione delle ragioni teologiche e simboliche alla base del progetto urbanistico del cosiddetto “Teatro del Sole” palermitano. Al contempo, lo studio permette di analizzare in modo inedito la portata simbolica dell’orientamento dell’antica A’simat, modificato nel 500, anche sulla base dei recenti rinvenimenti di significativi brani urbanistici di Palermo antica: la strada fenicia primigenia dichiarerebbe il vero 'genius loci' della città consacrato al solstizio estivo e ai cicli solari delle antiche Divinità Cabire.
Calzolari, Enrico-Luni romana: ipotesi su un tempio dedicato alla Luna, divenuto poi basilica paleo-cristianaSecondo Tito Livio, Luni, prima di essere romana fu etrusca. Tutti collegano la città al nostro albo satellite, ma studi approfonditi di toponomastica considerano ciò inesatto. In Etrusco la divinità lunare dovrebbe essere 'Artune'. Strabone, che scrisse in lingua greca, avrebbe dovuto indicare la città etrusca col nome di 'Selene' (il 'Selen limen' è citato nell’"Atlante dello Spina" del 1592), ma utilizzò invece un toponimo ritenuto erroneamente celto-ligure, mentre invece è da far risalire al sanscrito loon, acquitrino, come Lucca a 'look', cioè la lama d’acqua che gli uccelli possono scorgere dall’alto. Nella Valle dell’Indo esiste una città che porta il nome Luni e vi è anche un fiume che porta quel nome, che però non si getta nell’Indo, ma in un deserto, dove forma un grande acquitrino. I fiumi Magra, Serchio, Arno formavano, con il trasporto degli inerti, grandi acquitrini, che hanno determinato i toponimi 'Pop-loon' (Populonia) e 'Vet-loon' (Vetulonia). Ciò premesso non è impossibile che i Romani, ultimi giunti, abbiano ritenuto che Luni fosse in effetti una città dedicata alla Luna e vi abbiano costruito un tempio a essa dedicato, ma che non è stato ancora trovato. Come in altri esempi di riutilizzo nell’ambito della “continuità del sacro” si è pensato in passato che potesse essere sotto la cattedrale paleo-cristiana, ma oggi si è scoperto che si tratta di una ricca dimora appartenuta ad un personaggio legato al mare. Lo dimostrano i ricchi mosaici a tema marino, talché è stata chiamata “la casa di Oceano”. Astronomicamente non si è riscontrato un allineamento vero al tramonto del solstizio d’estate, che potesse far pensare a 310°-311°. Infatti, il 27 maggio alle ore 20:20 il Sole aveva già abbondantemente superato l’allineamento delle mura del grande tempio. Secondo le Effemeridi, al tramonto sul mare, alle ore 20:37, il Sole aveva una declinazione di 21° 27' 23" Nord, ancora lontana da quella del Solstizio. Occorrerà una revisione della cartografia ufficiale del sito archeologico?
Barale, Piero-Le pietre perdute. Viaggio mito-archeologico alla ricerca del megalitismo in Piemonte-
Torlai, Luigi-Astronomia didattico-laboratoriale: gli strumenti degli antichi-
Nocentini, Giovanni-Un osservatorio astronomico preistorico in Albania-
Miglietta, Alessio-William Stukeley a Stonehenge: un precursore dell’archeoastronomia-
De Franceschini, MarinaVeneziano, GiuseppeL’Eremo di Sant’Elia a Curinga (Catanzaro)-
Uberti, Marisa-L’orientazione astronomica dei 'Massi Avelli' del territorio comasco: riflessioni intorno a un argomento ancora avvolto nel misteroLa relazione presentata in questo XIX Seminario intende approfondire l’interrogativo (mai sanato) sull’orientazione astronomica di questi enigmatici manufatti ricavati artificialmente dall’uomo scavando massi erratici depositati dal ritiro del ghiacciai in posizioni naturali e casuali. Si tratta di rocce metamorfiche di notevole durezza e compattezza, che furono lavorate abilmente per ricavarne un tipo particolare di sepolture, che sembrano essere un unicum di questo territorio. Le operazioni di escavazione furono condotte manualmente, poiché fino alla metà del XIX secolo quello era il solo tipo di lavorazione (progressivamente furono introdotti mezzi meccanici). Ogni tipo di roccia richiede tecniche diverse, a seconda della sua natura; chi esegue il lavoro di escavazione deve conoscerla per determinare soprattutto il verso (lungo il quale la roccia si divide più facilmente rispetto alle altre direzioni), che nelle rocce metamorfiche è identificabile con i piani di scistosità. Per questo l’orientazione astronomica di queste tombe “a vasca da bagno” è difficile da attribuire, sebbene ovviamente determinabile: furono scavate sull’asse che oggi rileviamo per un preciso intento o per ragioni pratiche? E perché scegliere alcuni massi erratici? Che importanza assunse la 'disposizione naturale' del masso (inamovibile)? Se quest’ultimo è molto voluminoso, verosimilmente si poteva scegliere quale direzione cardinale dare all’avello contenuto (generalmente in antico si prestava molta attenzione a porre il capo del defunto verso Est, coincidente con il sorgere del Sole e quindi al ciclo vitale di morte-rinascita). Ma la questione della facilità di seguire un verso o meno, fa riflettere. Per ragioni puramente sintetiche, vengono qui discussi quattro punti principali: 1) I Massi Avelli: definizione, note storiche e geografiche; 2) Funzione e ipotesi cronologiche; 3) Il culto “superstizioso”; 4) Tipi di pietra e orientazione astronomica.
Colona, Paolo-Ambiti, metodi e obbiettivi dell’Archeoastronomia: studio per una definizione condivisaAs to 2017, Archaeoastronomy still suffers the lack of a unique, shared definition. We discuss how it is possible to draw the definition of any discipline and we identify two ways: theoretical and empirical. Definitions of archaeoastronomy following these two methods are reported as well as a reasoned comparison between them that leads to define archaeoastronomy as “the science that studies cultural records of all ages, especially ancient, to identify their possible astronomicalcontent with the aim of improving their understanding and helping to reconstruct the cultural context that created it. Contributing to the history of astronomy and culture can be considered an auxiliary science of archeology and the history of literature, religions and thought”. The areas of study of archaeoastronomy and the relations with history of astronomy and cultural astronomy are also discussed.
Felolo, Luigi-La Pietra della Berlina a Vinadio (Cuneo)-
Veneziano, Giuseppe-L’eclisse totale di Sole del 3 giugno 1239 sul bassorilievo delle pieve di Cortemilia : Ulteriori conferme e nuova ipotesiThe studies performed by the writer on the Romanesque parish church of Santa Maria (Saint Mary) in Cortemilia (Cuneo, Italy) have highlighted the archaeoastronomical significance of the structure: the axis of the parish church is oriented towards the local sunrise at the equinoxes. This relevance has also been demonstrated for a magnificent bas-relief walled in the parish church, which shows symbols connected with the stars. Researches on manuscripts of the same era revealed that one of this symbols could be traced back to the representation of a Total Sun Eclipse visible in this area on June 3, 1239, not many years after the founding of the parish church. One of these manuscripts, the 'Liber Chronicarum' (better known as 'Nuremberg Chronicles') published by Hartmann Schedel in 1493, is the one that best reflects this event. In this report, which is an in-depth study of earlier one, it will be noted that in the same work, Hartmann Schedel describes an eclipse of the Sun that would take place on June 6, 1238. It will be shown that there was no eclipse at this date and that his author, by mistake (anticipating that of a year and postponing it for three days), referred to the eclipse of June 3, 1239, the same depicted on the bas-relief of the parish church. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the sky during this phenomenon would allow us to hypothesize that the position of the visible stars at the time the Sun was obscured could be the basis of the interpretation of both the astral symbols and their arrangement on the bas-relief, thus giving the impression that the anonymous sculptor wanted to freeze on the stone of the bas-relief information about the spectacular astronomical event of which he was evidently an eyewitness.
Codebò, Mario-La triplice congiunzione Giove-Saturno del 12895 a.C.According to Avestā, the Saošyant was born of a virgin at the end of 12000 years, that is the length of the creation of Ahura Mazdā and the acme of the apparent triumph of the devil Angra Mainyu, with the purpose of guiding the holy people through the final judgment. Bianchi, Codebò, Veneziano and Veronesi, in their previous works, interpreted Mt 2,1-21, assuming that the Magi moved from their homes to Jerusalem when, in 7 B.C., the triple conjunction Jupiter – Saturn appeared in the Pisces constellation, where the spring equinox was coming in, while at the same time the autumn equinox was entering the Virgo constellation. But what convinced them that the 12000 years were over and Saošyant was about to be born? Perhaps it was the finding that that year 7 B.C. repeated spectacularly what had happened almost 13000 years earlier: a triple conjunction of Jupiter – Saturn in 12895 B.C. in Virgo constellation, where was the spring equinox while at the same time the autumn equinox was in Pisces constellation.
Veronesi, Alessandro-Aggiornamenti sull’interpretazione archeoastronomica della Stella di BetlemmeLo studio presentato a questo Convegno dall’autore costituisce un approfondimento di una analoga relazione presentata nel 2010. È sostanzialmente un’analisi astronomica della cosiddetta “Stella di Betlemme” basata principalmente sui Testi sacri cristiani (Vangelo) e secondariamente su interpretazioni plausibili di altri testi astronomici e religiosi coevi, elaborati da popoli di aree geografiche attigue. A differenza di altre dissertazioni, in questo studio le conclusioni cui si giunge risultano descritte interamente nei passi evangelici rilevanti, senza ricorrere ad aggiunte esterne. Inoltre, ladescrizione del fenomeno astronomico sembra completa, ed effettivamente sufficiente a spiegare cosa osservarono realmente i Magi. L’inquadramento cronologico degli eventi rispecchia con coerenza il succedersi degli eventi, così come narrati dai Vangeli e da studiosi contemporanei. Pertanto, pur non essendo possibile provare incontestabilmente questa teoria, essa appare attualmente credibile. Si rimanda quindi il lettore allo studio originale presentato al XII Seminario di Archeoastronomia ALSSA – 2010: “La stella di Betlemme vista dai Magi”, reperibile sui siti Web: www.alssa.it e http://www.archaeoastronomy.it/Atti_12_seminario.pdf .
Frosini, AgostinoCodebò, MarioIl software 'Effemeridi VSOP87' (Variations Séculaires des Orbites Planétaire)-
Galovart, Jose Luis-Equinocios y solsticios en el arte rupestre prehistórico de Galicia y el Norte de Portugal : Los calendarios solares de Pedra dos Mouros (Mogor) y Lombo da Costa (Cotobade)La distribución de las formas circulares del arte rupestre prehistórico galaico siempre se ha considerado solo ordenada por criterios compositivos y de equilibrio estético. El descubrimiento en el año 2009 de los alineamientos equinociales de círculos, en Mogor, Lombo da Costa y Gargamala, indicaba la existencia de al menos un pequeño orden parcial en tres lugares emblemáticos del arte geométrico. El paso siguiente debía ser comprobar si había o no alineamientos solsticiales. Una segunda cuestión son los alineamientos que no corresponden al equinocio y los soslticios; y que tienen una explicación en los movimientos diarios del sol. Se trata de diseños complejos donde por paralelismo se obtienen líneas y estructuras calendáricas múltiples. Descubrir el modelo de Pedra dos Mouros, posibilitó abordar el más complicado y monumental de Lombo da Costa. En ambos, hay un orden geométrico y astronómico que alcanza a la casi totalidad de sus motivos circulares.
De Rose, Luciana-L'uovo cosmico di Hildegarde di Bingen-
De Franceschini, MarinaVeneziano, GiuseppeArcheoastronomia nell’antica Helvetia: il teatro ed il tempio di Aventicum (Avenches)-
Barale, PieroVeneziano, GiuseppeIl cuore celtico della 'Iulia Augusta Taurinorum' : Analisi degli orientamenti astronomici di Torino-
Nocentini, GiovanniCalzolari, EnricoIntegrazione antropologica allo studio dei siti di San Lorenzo al Caprione (Lerici, La Spezia) e del Sasso del Regio (Casentino, Arezzo)La presente relazione fa riferimento a quella di Enrico Calzolari sulla correlazione dei siti di San Lorenzo al Caprione (Lerici, La Spezia) e del Sasso del Regio (Casentino, Arezz) e presenta i risultati di una indagine di carattere antropologico sui culti e riti della fertilità che potevano interessare i due siti in età arcaica. In particolare, essa prende in esame il territorio attorno al Sasso del Regio e per estensione tutto l’Alto Casentino, essendo la vallata ricca di emergenze archeologiche e residui pagani, che sopravvivono anche in leggende, usanze, rituali e credenze religiose.
Torlai, Luigi-Allineamenti astronomici delle chiese romaniche del Tortonese-
Agostini, AgostinoDe Santis, HenryArcheoastronomia alla Villa di Corliano (Pisa)La villa di Corliano venne costruita tra il 1536 ed il 1593 dalla famiglia dei Della Seta come sede dell'Accademia degli Svegliati e fu in precedenza una villa della 'gens Venuleia', 'duoviri' della colonia Alfea (Pisa), 'praetor Etruriae' e 'magister' della confraternita sacerdotale degli Arvali1. È attraversata, al tramonto equinoziale, dai raggi del sole che, dopo una "danza luminosa" sugli affreschi astrologici cinquecenteschi nel salone dei balli, si vanno a spegnere sul coffee-house settecentesco costruito nel belvedere.
Uberti, Marisa-La “Cappella astronomica” del Duomo di Montagnana (Padova)Questa relazione divulgativa prende avvio con l’elenco delle località italiane (oltre duecento) in cui sono attestate rappresentazioni astrali tra i secoli XII-XVIII, non solo in contesti civili ma anche religiosi. Tra queste, si prende in considerazione la “Cappella del Rosario” del duomo di Montagnana, in provincia di Padova. Il grandioso monumento cittadino – eretto a partire dal 1431 e terminato molti anni dopo, nel 1502 – ingloba sul lato Nord l’unica cappella laterale delle molte che dovevano esistere originariamente. Negli anni ’50 del XX secolo venne tolto l’altare barocco che chiudeva l’accesso della suddetta Cappella e venne alla luce un ciclo di affreschi che fino ad allora era rimasto ignoto: a destare meraviglia fu il cielo zodiacale che occupa tutto il catino della piccola abside. Da allora diversi studiosi si sono cimentati nell’interpretazione dei soggetti illustrati e, soprattutto, sul significato dell’intera raffigurazione, che rimane ad oggi enigmatico. Su uno sfondo che doveva essere azzurro e trapunto di stelle si stagliano: da sinistra la Nave degli Argonauti (dal 1760 smembrata nelle tre distinte costellazioni Carena, Poppa, Vela) e Pegaso, il cavallo alato correlato alla costellazione individuabile tra luglio e gennaio; al centro il sinuoso Dragone, entro cui stanno l’Orsa Maggiore e l’Orsa Minore e una grossa stella a otto punte. Dall’alto scende la fascia dello Zodiaco, per tutta la lunghezza del catino, e in essa si trovano due costellazioni, il Leone e la Vergine, impersonata da una donna alata che stringe nella mano sinistra una spiga di grano, Spica, nome di una delle stelle di questa costellazione. Nel ventre del Leone avviene un fenomeno astronomico non trascurabile: il Sole è parzialmente oscurato dalla Luna. All’estrema destra il ciclo si conclude con la presenza sulla scena di un gigante barbuto, con la clava e la pelle leonina, allusione alla costellazione di Ercole. Questa configurazione celeste consente di ricostruire un preciso momento storico?Vedremo quali sono le principali ipotesi astronomiche avanzate dagli studiosi nel corso del tempo: dalla “fotografia” di un’eclisse parziale di Sole all’allegoria legata ad una profezia anti-turca, guardando anche ai personaggi di spicco che gravitavano a Montagnana nel XV secolo, come Galeotto Marzio, umanista, medico e astronomo.
Colona, Paolo-L’origine astronomica di alcuni miti greciWe analyze six myths with an evident astronomical meaning. Some of them are unpublished and we propose here for the first time a scientific interpretation. We also show the difference between etiological or origin myth and criptoscientific myth. The myths whose scientific connotation we examine are those of: the Rape of Persephone, the interdiction for the Bear to bath in the Ocean, the killing of Orion by the Scorpion, the fall of Phaethon in the River Eridanos, the transformation of Cycnus into a swan, the creation of the Milky Way when Hera nurses Heracles. Of the last three myths we propose an original astronomical interpretation.
Nocentini, Giovanni-La Via Lattea e Cassiopea nell’Etruria arcaicaLa relazione, dopo una generale presentazione della concezione che il popolo etrusco aveva dell’astronomia, presenta l’importanza della Via Lattea per gli Etruschi. Mostra, poi, come questo popolo la rappresentasse simbolicamente e come usasse immagini riferibili alla costellazione di Cassiopea per significare la stessa Via Lattea. Inoltre, la relazione presenta un’indagine nel territorio dell’Etruria arcaica, ne ricostruisce l’idrografia dell’epoca ed individua 5 importanti siti etruschi dislocati nel territorio in maniera simile alle 5 stelle di Cassiopea.
Saggese, Lucio-Contenuti astronomici nella chiesa di San Donato a Ripacandida (Potenza)Alcuni degli affreschi che abbelliscono la chiesa francescana di Ripacandida (Potenza) presentano palesi riferimenti astronomici, poco evidenziati dai critici d’arte e banalizzati nei contenuti. Qui si avanza una nuova lettura di due affreschi, a partire dal fenomeno delle eclissi, cercando di dare ragione di diversi segni grafici e delle varie tonalità di colore, inseriti nella concezione cosmologica dell’epoca e nel contesto territoriale, proponendo infine per i due riquadri nuovi titoli.
Cristofaro, Ilaria-Il riflesso del Sole sul mare: una Via verso la rinascita nell’escatologia Tardo-Minoica (tarda Età del Bronzo III)Durante albe e tramonti sul mare, la luce del Sole riflessa sull’acqua può generare uno spettacolare fenomeno ottico paragonabile a una luminosa via dorata. Per la prima volta in questo studio, il fenomeno della ‘via luminosa’ è stato studiato da una prospettiva archeologica, con lo scopo di capirne il suo possibile ruolo e significato nella cosmologia tardo minoica (LM III) presente sull’isola greca di Creta (circa 1425-1050 a.C.). Infatti, alcuni studiosi, come Arthur Evans, hanno evidenziato l’importanza religiosa del Sole per la cultura Minoica, mentre il mare era probabilmente considerato una zona di transizione per raggiungere il mondo dell’aldilà, come attestano i frequenti motivi marini nei corredifunerari. Una ricerca fenomenologica è stata portata avanti per 3 mesi, dove il riflesso del Sole è stato sistematicamente osservato e sintetizzato nelle sue evidenti qualità di manifestazione. Si evince che il fenomeno della ‘via luminosa’ ha le caratteristiche per essere considerato un’epifania del concetto dell’asse cosmico che, come elaborato da Mircea Eliade, interseca diversi stati dell’esistenza. L’analisi ha parallelamente considerato l’iconografia funeraria tardo minoica, con particolare attenzione sulla simbologia del polpo, il motivo decorativo più ricorrente ritrovato nelle ceramiche tombali. Creando una corrispondenza tra il mondo naturale e quello culturale, la discussione ha esaminato la sintassi assiale della decorazione del polpo e le sue forme ibride in pianta, albero della vita, colonna d’acqua, e rosetta, mettendo così in evidenza analogie qualitative con il fenomeno della luce riflessa allungata del Sole sul mare. La ricerca conclude che la visione della ‘via luminosa’ potrebbe essere stata considerata, nella civiltà tardo minoica, come la strada da seguire per raggiungere la rinascita di una nuova vita dopo la morte,con il polpo che ricopre il ruolo di psicopompo nell’attraversamento del mare ctonio da parte delle anime dei morti.
Panzonato, Donatella-Il Sole abbracciato alla Luna nella basilica di San Marco a VeneziaOgni segno, ogni traccia, grande o piccola che sia, è meritevole di attenzione in quanto è pregiata, importante, unica ed in quanto ci racconta comunque la sua storia. È una fortuna poter essere catturati da queste tracce, questi passati, perché rappresentano le nostre radici e la nostra storia. Perciò non si può non prestare attenzione, rimanendo insensibili davanti alla bellezza e al fascino esercitato dal messaggio e dalla poetica che trasmettono le importanti e arcaiche tracce che sono custodite negli arconi della basilica di S. Marco a Venezia, in particolare nell’arcone principale, il primo arcone, anzi nel sottarco del I arcone, quello meno conosciuto, quasi sicuramente quello più ermetico, quello più vicino a noi (il primo sopra i nostri occhi), e contemporaneamente quello più lontano per origini, significato e linguaggio. Il primo arcone, che è “nostro” solo perché “nostro” lo è diventato, infatti ce ne siamo appropriati senza sapere, sentire, capire di cosa realmente ci siamo impadroniti; in parte per fortuna, per bravura, per sfacciataggine, per politica presa, per momento storico. Infatti, c’era bisogno, visto il nuovo unico momento storico Veneziano, di un totale rinnovamento, della nuova Regina dei Mari: potenza, affermazione, rinnovazione, non solo politica, ma anche la necessità di una nuova Piazza, di un nuovo Palazzo, di un nuovo Patrono, di un Tempio Sacro capace di custodire il nuovo Tesoro e soprattutto un Ingresso, un passaggio Importante, degno di un maestoso tempio. Il materiale non mancava e la nuova piazza stava nascendo: nasce così l’idea della terza Basilica con un Nuovo Santo Patrono che miracolosamente rende possibile tutto questo. Parleremo di segni, tracce di cui ho accennato prima, nascosti in alcuni bassorilievi marmorei, e discuteremo delle emozioni e delle sensazioni che trasmettono, in modo forte, diretto, impetuoso. Queste sculture coprono tutto il semi-arco del I intradosso, sono segni nati non si sa dove, arrivati a noi e inseriti nel nostro arcone soltanto nel medioevo, nel fantastico medioevo veneziano. Per capire la loro storia, che poi è diventata la nostra storia, di cosa hanno voluto dire quando sono stati creati, e cosa continuano a dire anche nella nuova ubicazione veneziana tra la fine del XII e la metà del XIII secolo, poiché vennero collocati nel nuovo ingresso, quello centrale, quello principale del Tempio. Per capirci, per capirli, per poterci avvicinare, è necessario aver presente il periodo storico-culturale, di come e del perché di certe scelte e di cosa si cela dietro il nostro tempio: la Basilica di San Marco.
Miglietta, Alessio-Sacrobosco e la cultura astronomica nel XIII secolo-
Pietrapiana, Paolo-Il Presepe: una mappa astronomico-precessionale-
Baudà, Alberto-La “Leylane Micaelica” in ItaliaL’allineamento di San Michele, comprendente notoriamente cinque siti religiosi dedicati all’Arcangelo Michele, unisce anche una molteplicità di chiese italiane, in maggior parte risalenti al 1100-1200 e, in molti casi, ricollegabili alla cultura longobarda. Lo studio dimostra statisticamente la non casualità dell’allineamento complessivo, tenuto conto di 44 siti italiani, analizzando aspetti archeoastronomici dell’allineamento, associato al tramonto del Sole al solstizio d’inverno, così come visibile dal M. Carmelo, individuando un’ipotesi attendibile di coincidenza con il lunistizio minore visibile da S. Michael in Irlanda. Si propone altresì un’ipotesi sulla realizzabilità operativa di collocazione di un sito sull’allineamento senza l’ausilio di nozioni e strumentazioni moderne.
Bianchi, Ettore-Censorino e le profondità del Tempo. Astronomia, filosofia, ideologia-
Zottele, Stefano-14 aprile 1912: il Sole e il TitanicNella storia recente si sono verificati alcuni eventi che potrebbero far sospettare un legame tra l’attività solare ed il clima terrestre. Il Sole rappresenta l’evento più scontato ed ovvio tra quelli che conosciamo: segna ad esempio il succedersi dei giorni. In questo breve testo provo ad indagare anche su un’altra affermazione abusata: “il tempo non è più quello di una volta”. Metterò quindi a confronto un grafico dell’attività solare, alcuni eventi della storia recente, ed il modo di prendere decisioni da parte dell'uomo, basate sull’esperienza e probabilità. Ma la realtà non è una ripetizione ciclica del passato. Essa si presenta in forma nuova e spesso tuttora imprevedibile.
Manuguerra, Mirco-Sessantesimo anniversario della fondazione dell’Associazione Spezzina Astrofili (A.S.A.) e quarantesimo anniversario dell’Associazione Astrofili Spezzini (A.A.S.)-